Questions on King Lear

Nobility Ranks مراتب النبلاء
Duke and duchess
Marquess (or marquis) and marchioness
Earl and countess
Viscount and viscountess
Baron and baroness

King Lear


LEAR, THE ELDERLY KING الملك العجوز OF BRITAIN, decides to step downيتنازل from the throne العرش and divide his kingdom evenly بالتساوي among his three daughters. First, however, he puts his daughters through a test اختبار , asking each to tell him how much she loves him. Goneril and Regan, Lear’s older daughters, give their father flattering answers إجابات متملقة . But Cordelia, Lear’s youngest and favourite daughter, remains silent, saying that she has no words to describe how much she loves her father. Lear flies into a rage and disowns يتبرأ من Cordelia. The king of France, who has loved Cordelia, says that he still wants to marry her even without her land, and she accompanies himترافقه to France without her father’s blessingدون مباركة أبيها .
Lear quickly learns that he made a bad decision قرار خاطئ . Goneril and Regan swiftly بسرعة begin to undermine يقوض the little authority السلطة that Lear still holds يمسكها . Unable to believe that his beloved daughters are betraying يخون him, Lear slowly goes insane مجنون . He flees يفر من his daughters’ houses to wander يطوف on a heath ارض بور during a great thunderstorm عاصفة رعدية , accompanied by مصحوبا من his Fool المهرج and by Kent, a loyal nobleman النبيل المخلص in disguise متنكرا .
Meanwhile في تلك الأثناء , an elderly nobleman نبيل عجوز named Gloucester also experiences يواجه family problems. His illegitimate son ابنه غير الشرعي , Edmund, tricks يخدعه him into believing that his legitimate son ابنه الشرعي , Edgar, is trying to kill him. Fleeing فارا من the manhunt المطاردة that his father has set for him جهزها له , Edgar disguises يتنكر himself as a crazy beggar متسول مجنون and calls himself “Poor Tom.” Like Lear, he heads out ينطلق إلى onto the heath الأرض البور When the loyal المخلص Gloucester realizes يدرك that Lear’s daughters have turned against their father انقلبت ضد , he decides to help Lear in spite of the danger رغم الخطر . Regan and her husband, Cornwall, discover يكشفانه him helping Lear, accuse يتهمانه him of treason الخيانة العظمى , blind يعميانه him, and turn him out يطردانه to wander يتجول the countryside الأرياف . He ends up ينتهي being led مقودا من by his disguised son ابنه المتنكر , Edgar, toward نحو the city of Dover, where Lear has also been brought.
In Dover, a French army الجيش الفرنسي lands يحط as part of an invasion غزو led by Cordelia قادته كورديليا in an effort في محاولة to save her father. Edmund apparently بوضوح becomes romantically entangled متورط عاطفيا with both Goneril and Regan, whose husband, Albany, is increasingly sympathetic متعاطف بازدياد to Lear’s cause قضية . Goneril and Edmund conspire يتآمران to kill Albany.
The despairing اليائس Gloucester tries to commit suicide ينتحر , but Edgar saves him by leading him off an imaginary غير حقيقية cliff منحدر . Meanwhile, the English troops القوات reach Dover, and the English, ledيقودها by Edmund, defeat تهزم the Cordelia-led الذي تقوده French. Lear and Cordelia are capturedقبض عليهما . Edgar duels يتبارز with and kills Edmund; we learn of the death of Gloucester; Goneril poisons تسمم Regan out of jealousy بدافع الغيرة over Edmund على إدموند and then kills herself when her treachery خيانتها is revealed كشفت to Albany; Edmund’s betrayal خيانة of Cordelia leads to her سببت لها needless غير ضروري execution إعداما in prison في السجن ; and Lear finally dies out of grief الحزن at Cordelia’s passing موت . Albany, Edgar, and the elderly Kent are left to take care of the country under a cloud of sorrow حزن and regret وأسى .

Act 1
1.Who is Lear?
He is the King of Britain.
1. من هو لير ؟
هو ملك بريطانيا.
2.Who are his three daughters?
They are Goneril, Regan and Cordelia.
2. من بناته الثلاث؟
هن غونيرل وريغان وكورديليا.
3.Who is Goneril married to?
She is married to the Duke of Albany.
3. من تزوج من غونيرل؟
تزوجها دوق الباني.
4.Who is Regan married to?
She is married to the Duke of Cornwall.
4. من تزوج من ريغان؟
تزوجها دوق كاورنوول.
5.Who wants to marry Cordelia?
The king of France and the Duke of Burgundy want to marry her.
5. من أراد الزواج من كورديليا؟
كل من ملك فرنسا ودوق بيرغندي أراد الزواج منها.
6.Why does King Lear decide to give the country to his three daughters?
He is old and feels tired.
6. لماذا قرر الملك لير إعطاء المملكة لبناته الثلاث؟
لأنه كبير ويشعر بالتعب.
7.Who is going to rule instead of him?
His daughters and their husbands.
7. من سيحكم بدلا منه؟
بناته وأزواجهن.
8.What is he going to do after giving up his kingdom?
He will stay with each daughter in turn for a month with 100 knights to protect him.
8. ماذا سيفعل عقب التخلي عن مملكته؟
سيمكث عند كل واحدة من بناته شهرا بصحبة 100 فارس لحمايته.
9.How much does Goneril say she loves her father?
She says she loves him very much and as much as life itself.
9. إلى أي درجة قالت غونيرل أنها تحب أباها؟
تحبه كثيرا بنفس قدر الحياة.
10.How does Lear react to Goneril's speech?
He gets very happy and gives her and her husband a third of his kingdom.
10. ماذا كان رد فعل لير تجاه ما قالته غونيرل؟
فرح كثيرا وأعطاها وزوجها ثلث مملكته.
11.How much does Regan say she loves her father?
She says she loves him more than Goneril does.
11. إلى أي درجة قالت ريغان إنها تحب أباها؟
إنها تحبه أكثر مما تحبه أختها غونيرل.
12.How does Lear react to Regan's speech?
He gets very pleased and gives her and her husband another third of his kingdom.
12. ماذا كان رد فعل لير تجاه ما قالته ريغان؟
فرح كثيرا وأعطاها وزوجها ثلثا آخر من مملكته.
13.How much does Cordelia say she loves her father?
She says she loves him as much as a daughter loves her father no more no less.
13. إلى أي درجة قالت كورديليا إنها تحب أباها؟
إنها تحبه كما تحب أي ابنة أباها لا أكثر ولا اقل..
14.Why does Cordelia say so?
She doesn’t want to compete with her sisters in boasting. She knows that they don’t love him as much as they pretend.
14. لماذا قالت كورديليا ما قالته؟
لم ترد أن تنافس أختيها التبجح وتعرف تماما أنهما لا تحبانه تماما كما ادعتا.
15.Why is Lear shocked by Cordelia's answer?
She is his youngest and favourite daughter. He is sure she would say she loves him more than her both sisters.
15. لماذا صعق لير من رد كورديليا؟
لأنها أفضل واصغر بناته لقد كان واثقا من أنها ستقول بأنها تحبه أكثر من أختيها.
16.How does Lear react to Cordelia's speech?
He gets very angry and says that she is no longer his daughter. He gives her share to her sisters. 16. ماذا كان رد فعل لير تجاه ما قالته كورديليا؟
استشاط غضبا وقال إنها لم تعد ابنته وأعطى نصيبها لأختيها.
17.Do Lear advisers agree with what he does?
No, they don’t.
17. هل وافق مستشارو لير على ما فعل؟
18.Who is the advisor who talked to the king?
The Earl of Kent. He asked the king to think again as he is wrong.
18. من هو المستشار الذي تحدث للملك؟
ايرل مقاطعة كنت وقد طلب من الملك أن يعيد التفكير لأنه مخطئ.
19.What does Lear do to Kent?
He sends him away.
19. ماذا فعل لير بايرل كنت؟
طرده خارج البلد.
20.Who agrees to marry Cordelia after losing everything?
King of France.
20. من قبل الزواج من كورديليا بعد خسارتها كل شيء؟
ملك فرنسا.
21.Why does King of France agree to marry Cordelia?
He thinks she is honest and true and he loves her for that.
21. لم وافق ملك فرنسا على الزواج من كورديليا؟
لأنه يعتقد أنها صادقة وقد أحبها لذلك.
22.Why does Duke of Burgundy refuse to marry Cordelia?
She has got nothing now.
22. لم رفض دوق بيرغندي الزواج من كورديليا؟
لأنها لم تعد تملك شيئا.
23.What does Cordelia ask her sisters to do before she leaves?
She asks them to take care of their father.
23. ماذا طلبت كورديليا من أختيها قبل رحيلها؟
طلبت منهما الاعتناء بابيهم.
24.What does Lear's cruel treatment of Cordelia mean to her sisters?
It means that there is something wrong with Lear's mind and that he might turn against them in the future.
24. ماذا عنت معاملة لير القاسية نحو كورديليا لأختيها؟
أن هناك خللا في عقل لير وانه قد ينقلب نحوهما مستقبلا.
25.Who is Edmund?
Edmund is the illegitimate son of Earl of Gloucester.
25 من هو إدموند؟
هو الابن غير الشرعي لايرل غلوستر.
26.Who is Edgar?
Edgar is the legitimate son of Earl of Gloucester.
26. من هو إدغار؟
هو الابن الشرعي لايرل غلوستر.
27.What is Edmund planning?
He is planning to take Edgar's place.
27. ماذا يخطط إدموند؟
أن يحل محل إدغار.
28.What does Edmund do to get rid of Edgar?
He shows his father a false letter that he said was written by Edgar, asking Edmund to help him kill their father for the share of everything he has. He also asks Edgar to hide from their father as he is angry at him.
28. ماذا فعل إدموند للتخلص من إدغار؟
اطلع والده على رسالة مزورة ادعى أن إدغار كتبها ويطلب منه أن يساعده في قتل والدهم مقابل تقاسم ثروته.
وقد طلب من إدغار أيضا أن يختبئ من والدهم لأنه غاضب منه.
29.Does the father believe Edmund?
Yes, he does.
29. هل صدق الأب إدغار؟
30.Why does Edmund do so?
He wants to get rid of his brother and takes everything for himself.
30. لم فعل إدموند ذلك؟
لأنه أراد التخلص من أخيه وان يأخذ كل شيء لنفسه.
31.What happens at Goneril's after two weeks of Lear's stay?
Goneril's servants behave rudely with Lear's men and quarrel with them.
31. ماذا حصل في قصر غونيرل بعد أسبوعين من مكوث لير؟
تصرف خدمها بسوء مع رجال لير وتشاجروا معهم.
32.How does Goneril treat her father?
She is unkind to him about the behaviour of his men.
32. كيف تعاملت غونيرل مع أبيها؟
لم تكن لطيفة معه بخصوص مسلكيات رجاله.
33.What is Goneril's plan?
It is to dismiss 50 of her father's men.
33. ماذا كانت خطة غونيرل؟
أن تسرح 50 من رجال أبيها.
34.How does Kent come back as?
He comes disguised as a poor man.
34. على أية هيئة عاد كنت؟
متنكرا كرجل فقير.
35.What does Kent want to do?
He wants to be close to Lear and he becomes his servant.
35. ماذا أراد كنت أن يفعل؟
أن يكون قريبا من لير ويصب
36.How do you show that Kent loves Lear?
Kent hits Oswald, Goneril's servant, for speaking disrespectfully to the king.
36. كيف تبين أن كنت يحب لير؟
لقد ضرب أوزولد خادم غونيرل لأنه تجاوز حدود الأدب مع لير.
37.What does Lear do to Goneril?
He curses her wishing that she had a child who would torment her.
37. ماذا فعل لير مع غونيرل؟
قام بلعنها وتمنى أن تنجب ولدا يقوم بتعذيبها.
►Fill in the spaces in the following:
•King Lear has……..daughters. The oldest is……… and is married to…………….. The middle is……….. and is married to…………. The youngest and favourite is…………….
•Lear decides to keep………….knights to……….. him and he will stay for a……… at each daughter in turn. Lear asked his daughters to say how much they ……. him in order to share the country between them.
•Kent was Lear's………… and he told him that he was……….. with Cordelia but Lear became………. and ………. Kent away.
•Goneril was………to her father. She planned to………….50 of his………….Lear ………….Goneril and wished she had a………..who would………….her.
•Kent was faithful to Lear as he came back disguised as a……….man and worked as Lear's…………

►Decide whether the following are TRUE or FALSE
1.The fool made a joke that Kent was the fool.
2.Edmund was Gloucester's legitimate son.
3.Edgar planned to kill his father.
4.Oswald was Goneril's servant.
5.The Duke of burgundy changed his mind of marrying Cordelia.
6.Lear was mistaken to give his power to his daughters.
7.Goneril and Regan were honest in their love to their father.
8.Kent disguised as a fool.
9.Goneril planned to dismiss 50 of her father's men.
10.King of France is clever and honest.

►Circle the correct answer:
1.Lear wanted to keep…….knights.
a. 100 b. 15 c. 50
2.Cordelia was Lear's………….. daughter.
a. Most beautiful b. Most dishonest c. favourite
3.Regan, Lear’s middle daughter, was married to
a. The Duke of Burgundy b. The Duke of Burgundy c. The Duke of Albany
4.Edmund tells his father that…………….
a. Edgar loves him b. Edgar ran away c. Edgar plots to kill him
5.As an illegitimate son, Edmund gets:
a. Nothing according to British law. b. Half of his father's fortune. c. All of his father's fortune.

Act 2
1.What does Edmund tell Edgar about his hiding place?
He tells him that their father knows the place and he has to run away so as not to be killed. 1. ماذا اخبر إدموند أخاه إدغار عن مكان اختبائه؟
قال له إن أباه يعرف المكان وان عليه الهرب حتى لا يقتله أبوه.
2.What does Edgar do?
He believes his brother and disguises pretending to be a mad homeless person. 2. ماذا فعل إدغار؟
صدق أخاه وتنكر كرجل مجنون مشرد.
3.What does Edmund do to continue his plot?
He cuts his arm with his sword and tells his father that Edgar did so as he refused to help him kill their father. 3. ماذا فعل إدموند لإكمال مؤامرته؟
جرح ذراعه بسيفه واخبر أباه أن إدغار فعل ذلك لأنه رفض مساعدته في قتل أبيهم.
4.How does Regan feel hearing Edgar's story?
She blames him doing so to his father. 4. ماذا كان شعور ريغان لسماعها قصة إدغار؟
لامت عليه أن يفعل ذلك مع أبيه.
5.How does Gloucester feel?
He feels very angry and sad. 5. ماذا كان شعور غلوستر؟
كان حزينا جدا وغاضبا.
6.What does Lear's letter tell Regan?
It tells her to get ready to receive him and his men. 6 ماذا كانت فحوى رسالة لير لابنته ريغان؟
تطلب منها الاستعداد لاستقباله ورجاله.
7.What does Goneril's letter tell Regan?
It complains about their father and warns Regan about Lear's noisy and expensive men.
7. ماذا كانت فحوى رسالة غونيرل لأختها ريغان؟
اشتكت من أبيهن وحذرت ريغان من رجال أبيهن المزعجين والمكلفين.
8.Why does Kent hit Oswald?
Oswald talks rudely about the king.
8. لماذا ضرب كنت أوزولد؟
لأنه تحدث بقلة أدب عن الملك.
9.What do Regan and her husband do to Kent?
They send him to prison.
9. ماذا فعلت ريغان وزوجها مع كنت؟
قاما بسجنه.
10.Why is Regan's act extremely disrespectful?
Because Kent is the King's messenger.
10. لماذا اعتبر تصرف ريغان مخزيا جدا؟
لان كنت هو رسول الملك.
11.What other shameful act does Regan do to her father?
She refuses to see him pretending that she is too tired.
11. أي فعل مخز آخر فعلته ريغان مع أبيها؟
رفضت مقابلته مدعية بأنها متعبة جدا.
12.What does Lear find out when he arrives at Regan's?
He finds that Kent is in prison and that Goneril has come to Regan.
12. ماذا اكتشف لير عندما وصل قصر ريغان؟
وجد أن كنت أودع السجن وان غونيرل حضرت عند ريغان.
13.Why does Goneril come?
She comes to tell her sister not to look after Lear.
13. لماذا قدمت غونيرل؟
جاءت لتخبر ريغان ألا تعتني بالملك لير.
14.What does Regan tell Lear after meeting Goneril?
She tells him to go with Goneril and ask for her forgiveness. She also tells him to send away fifty of his men.
14. ماذا أخبرت ريغان والدها لير بعد لقائها غونيرل؟
طلبت منه الذهاب مع غونيرل وان يطلب الصفح منها. وطلبت منه أيضا أن يصرف 50 من رجاله.
15.What do Regan and Goneril think of their father?
They think that he is angry and thinks too much of himself.
15. ماذا ظنت ريغان و غونيرل بابيهما؟
انه غاضب ويفكر كثيرا بنفسه.
16.What does Lear remind Regan of?
He reminds her that he gave her half of all his land. 16. ماذا ذكر لير ابنته ريغان؟
انه منحها نصف مملكته.
17.What does Lear ask Regan?
He asks her to let him stay with all his men.
17. ماذا طلب لير من ريغان؟
أن يبقى مع جميع رجاله.
18.How many men does Regan accept?
She accepts twenty five.
18. كم من الرجال وافقت ريغان على إبقائهم؟
وافقت على إبقاء 25 رجلا.
19.How many men does Lear think Goneril would accept?
He thinks she would accept fifty.
19. كم رجلا اعتقد لير أن غونيرل ستسمح له بإبقائهم؟
اعتقد أنها ستسمح بخمسين رجلا.
20.How many men do the daughters really accept?
They accept no one. 20. كم رجلا وافقت الأختان على إبقائهم في الواقع؟
لم تريدا أيا منهم.
21.What does the king finally realize?
He finally realizes that giving away everything had been a terrible mistake and he has lost all his power. He realizes also that the two daughters feel no love or kindness for him.
21. ماذا أدرك الملك أخيرا؟
أن التخلي عن كل شيء هو خطا جسيم وانه فقد كامل نفوذه وان ابنتيه لا تحبانه أو تظهران نحوه أية مشاعر طيبة.
22.What does Lear do?
He goes out into the storm alone except for Kent and the fool.
22. ماذا فعل لير؟
غادر خارجا في العاصفة يصاحبه كنت والمهرج.
23.Whom do Regan and Goneril blame for their father's suffering?
They blame their father himself.
23. من تلوم غونيرل وريغان على معاناة أبيهما؟
تلومان أبيهما وحده.

►Decide which words you can use to describe: Lear, Regan, Goneril, Kent, Oswald, Edmund, Edgar, and Gloucester.
ungrateful - sad – selfish – angry – badly advised – cruel – dishonest – mistaken – shocking – shocked- suffering – wrong – disrespectful- silly – stupid – cunning – brave – honest – faithful – sorry – regretting – simple – passionate


Regan: ………………………………………………………………………………………….…

Goneril: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Kent: ……………………………………………………………………………………………....

Oswald: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Edmund: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Edgar: ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Gloucester: …………………………………………………………………………………………

►Fill in the following spaces
•Lear realized that he was……………. when his daughters refused to accept his………….
•Regan showed no respect to her father as she refused to…….him pretending that she was very……
•Goneril wanted her father to apologise to her for being……………..
•Edmund lied to his father about his brother……. and ….his arm by his sword to……….his father that his brother did it.
•Edgar ………….what Edmund said and ……away. He ………..as a…………….person.
•After all what they did, the daughters still………their father.
•Lear left out with……………and……….leaving all his men.

►Decide whether the following are TRUE or FALSE
1.Edgar believed all that Edmund said.
2.Regan ordered Kent to be imprisoned.
3.Gloucester was happy to see what happened to Lear.
4.Gloucester believed all that Edmund said.
5.Oswald hit Kent at Regan's palace.
6.Regan wanted her father to keep 25 men if he wanted to stay with her.
7.Lear asked to meet Regan but she refused.
8.Edmund was injured after having a fight with Edgar.
9.Goneril followed Lear to Regan's house.
10.Lear did not realize that he was wrong.

►Circle the correct answer
1.The one who was hiding from his father was:
a. Edgar b. Edmund c. Gloucester
2.Oswald was:
a. Regan's servant b. Lear's servant c. Goneril's servant
3.Kent was:
a. Regan's servant b. Lear's servant c. Goneril's servant
4.Lear left Regan's with:
a. fifty men b. twenty five men c. two only
5.When Lear left there was:
a. a storm b. rain c. nothing

Act 3
1.What does Kent find out?
He finds out that King of France has come to England with an army and with Cordelia.
1.ماذا اكتشف كنت؟
اكتشف أن ملك فرنسا قادم لانجلترا بجيشه ومعهم كورديليا.
2.Why does Kent send a letter to Cordelia?
He sends her a letter to explain what happened to her father.
2. لماذا أرسل كنت رسالة إلى كورديليا؟
ليخبرها ما حل بابيها.
3.What happens to Lear?
Sorrow and anger make him mad.
3. ماذا حل بالملك لير؟
الحزن والغضب افقداه عقله.
4.Why does Lear shout at the storm?
To do its worst.
4. لماذا صرخ لير على العاصفة؟
حتى تأتي بأسوأ ما عندها.
5.Where does Kent persuade Lear to take shelter?
In a small dirty hut.
5. أين اقنع كنت الملك لير بالاختباء؟
في كوخ صغير قذر.
6.What impact does living in the dirty hut have on Lear?
Lear begins to feel sorry, for the first time, for others than himself. He thinks of poor, homeless and old people.
6. ماذا كان اثر مكوث لير في الكوخ على نفسه؟
بدا يشعر بالأسى وللمرة الأولى على الآخرين وبدا يفكر في الفقراء والمشردين والعجائز.
7.Whom do they find in the hut?
They find Edgar.
7. من وجدوا في الكوخ؟
8.How does Edgar disguise?
He disguises as a beggar called poor Tom, pretending to be mad.
8. كيف تنكر إدغار؟
تنكر كمتسول مطلقا على نفسه اسم توم المسكين ومدعيا الجنون.
9.What does Edgar wear?
He wears nothing, covering himself with a blanket.
9. ماذا ارتدى إدغار؟
لم يرتد أيا من الملابس وغطى نفسه ببطانية.
10.What does Lear think happened to Edgar?
He thinks that Edgar gave everything to his daughters and had gone mad.
10. ماذا اعتقد لير انه قد حصل مع إدغار؟
ظن أن إدغار أعطى كل شيء لبناته وفقد عقله، تماما مثله.
11.What happens between Albany and Cornwall?
They quarrel with each other. 11. ما حصل بين الباني و كاورنوول؟
تقاتلا فيما بينهما.
12.Why is Gloucester upset?
Because Regan and Cornwall stopped him from helping Lear or even to talk to him.
12. لماذا كان غلوستر منزعجا؟
لان ريغان وكاورنوول منعاه مساعدة لير أو حتى التحدث معه.
13.What does Gloucester decide to do?
He decides to take Lear's side against Lear's daughters and their husbands.
13. ماذا قرر غلوستر أن يفعل؟
قرر أن يقف إلى جانب لير ضد بناته وأزواجهن.
14.What does Edmund decide to do?
He decides to tell Cornwall everything his father thinks of, though this might endanger his father's life.
14. ماذا قرر إدموند أن يفعل؟
قرر أن يخبر كاورنوول كل ما يدور في خلد أبيه رغم علمه أن ذلك سيعرض حياة أبيه للخطر.
15.What does Gloucester ask Lear to do when he found him?
He asks him to go with him to his castle.
15. ماذا طلب غلوستر من لير عندما وجده؟
طلب منه الذهاب معه إلى قلعته.
16.Why does Lear refuse to go with Gloucester?
He doesn’t want to leave poor Tom.
16. لماذا رفض لير الذهاب مع غلوستر؟
لم يرد أن يترك توم المسكين.
17.What do Lear, Kent, poor Tom and the fool do?
They perform a mock trial to Lear's evil daughters.
17. ماذا فعل كل من لير وكنت وتوم المسكين والمهرج؟
أدوا محاكمة هزلية لبنات لير الشريرات.
18.Who plans to kill Lear?
Regan and Cornwall.
18. من خطط لقتل لير؟
ابنته ريغان وكاورنوول.
19.Where does Gloucester advise Kent to take Lear? Why?
He advises him to take Lear to Dover. There, he would be safe with Cordelia and King of France.
19. أين نصح غلوستر كنت أن يأخذ لير؟ ولماذا؟
نصحه أن يأخذه إلى دوفر حيث سيكون بأمان هناك مع كورديليا وملك فرنسا.
20.What does Cornwall plan to do?
He plans to punish Gloucester.
20. ماذا خطط كاورنوول لفعله؟
قرر أن يعاقب غلوستر.
21.Why does Cornwall plan to punish Gloucester?
He calls him traitor.
21. لماذا قرر كاورنوول معاقبة غلوستر؟
لأنه اعتبره خائنا.
22.Why does Edmund leave after telling Cornwall everything about his father?
He doesn’t want to be blamed of not protecting his father.
22. لماذا غادر إدموند بعد إخبار كاورنوول عن أبيه؟
لم يرد أن يلام على عدم حماية أبيه.
23.How does Cornwall punish Gloucester?
He blinds his eyes.
23. كيف عاقب كاورنوول غلوستر؟
أعمى كلتا عينيه.
24.What does one of Cornwall's servants do?
He attacks Cornwall as he could not bear the Duke's cruelty.
24. ماذا فعل احد خدم كاورنوول؟
هاجم كاورنوول لأنه لم يحتمل قسوته.
25.What happens to the servant?
He is killed.
25. ماذا حصل للخادم؟
قتله كاورنوول.
26.What happens to Cornwall?
He is hurt.
26. ماذا حصل لكاورنوول؟
أصيب بجروح.
27.What does Cornwall tell Gloucester after blinding him?
He tells him that his son Edmund betrayed him and told everything about his plans.
27. ماذا اخبر كاورنوول ضحيته غلوستر بعد أن أعماه؟
اخبره أن ابنه إدموند خانه وانه هو من اخبره عن مخططاته بخصوص مساعدة لير.
28.What does Gloucester realize?
He realizes that Edmund was a liar and Edgar was innocent.
28. ماذا أدرك غلوستر؟
أن إدموند كان كاذبا وان إدغار كان بريئا.
29.What does Regan do to Gloucester?
She throws him away out of his castle into the storm.
29. ماذا فعلت ريغان مع غلوستر؟
طردته خارجا من قلعته في العاصفة.

Act 4

Book Questions / 75
1. Who might have said or thought the following ? Explain each
situation in turn ?
a) " I can't bear to see my poor father like this . How could anyone
have hurt him like this and treated him so cruelly ?"
Edgar or Cordelia .
Edgar found his father , Gloucester , blinded by Cornwall .
Later , Cordelia found her father , King Lear , driven mad by his
daughter's cruelty .
b) " Am I finally going mad or am I just confused ? How could I
have fallen so far and still be alive ?"
Gloucester .
He thought he had jumped off a cliff and should be dead . In fact ,
he had fallen only a short distance .
c) " I've got to think quickly . How am I going to stop her from
getting him now that her husband is dead ?"
Goneril .
Goneril wanted Edmund . when Regan's husband died , Goneril
was worried that Regan might get Edmund .
d)" What ? I don't believe this ! It means that that terrible woman is
trying to get my brother to kill her husband . This is really , really
bad ."
Edgar .
Edgar found a letter in which Goneril told Edmund to kill her
husband , Albany .
e) " At last ! My father ! But has he really gone completely mad ?
I'll ask my doctor to give him some medicine that may perhaps
help him ."
Cordelia .
When Cordelia found King Lear , her doctor gave him some
medicine .
2. Answer these questions.
a) Why does Gloucester decide to jump off the cliff?
Because he is so deeply unhappy at what he has done to Edgar and what he has suffered at the hands of Cornwall .
b) Why does the Duke of Albany feel that his wife Goneril is evil?
Because she has helped Regan and Cornwall to make King Lear
go mad and to blind Gloucester .
3. Complete each of the following .
a) Goneril hears that her sister's husband has died as a result of ___
his servant's attack during the blinding of Gloucester .
b) Edgar leads his father to the middle of a field and not to the high
cliffs as ___ his father wants .
c) King Lear fully expects Cordelia to be angry with him because __
he has behaved very badly towards her .
d) Goneril has written a letter to Edmund telling him to kill her
husband because ___ her husband , Albany , has turned against
her , and she wants to marry Edmund .

Additional Questions
1. Where do Edgar and Gloucester meet after the latter has been
thrown out of Regan's castle ?
They meet out on the windy heath.
2. How does Edgar treat his father then ?
He takes care of him .
3. How does Edgar introduce himself to his blinded father ?
He doesn't tell him who he is . Instead he pretends to be " poor
mad Tom " .
4. What does " poor mad Tom" remind Gloucester of ? And what
does he wish ?
He reminds him of his son Edgar . He wishes he could hold him
in his arms again .
5. What does Gloucester compare people and gods to ?
He compares people to flies and gods to boys who torment them
for fun .
6. Why could Edgar hardly speak to his father ?
Because of his sorrow at seeing his father blinded .
7. Where does Gloucester ask Edgar to take him ? Why ?
He asks him to take him to Dover in order to throw himself from
the high cliffs and end his unhappy life .
8. Does Edgar agree to take him there ?
Edgar agrees to take him not to Dover , but to the middle of a field
9. What does Gloucester do in the middle of the field ?
He jumps and falls on the ground .
10. What does Edgar do when his father falls on the ground ?
He lifts him up pretending to be a friendly stranger .
11. What does Edgar allow father to think after he has fallen ?
Edgar allows him to think that he has fallen and survived by a
miracle .
12. How does Goneril begin to treat her husband after falling in
love with Edmund ?
She begins to despise him and considers him as a weak person .
13. What is Albany's reaction towards Goneril's behavior ?
He begins to hate what Goneril , Regan , Cornwall and Edmund
have done between them .
14. " You are not worth the dust which the rude wind blows in
your face ." Who says this ? To whom is it said ? Why ?
Albany says this to his wife Goneril because he begins to hate her.
15. When has Cornwall died ?
He has died after the servant's attack during the blinding of
Gloucester .
16. Why is Goneril worried by the news of Cornwall's death ?
Because her sister Regan has become a widow and she may marry Edmund – the man she wants for herself .
17. What does Albany consider Edmund , and what does he
decide to do ?
He considers Edmund a terrible traitor , and he decides to punish him
18. Where does the King of France leave Cordelia ?
He leaves her near Dover with his army .
19. What does Kent tell Cordelia in his letter ?
He tells her about her father's fall into madness .
20. What is Lear ashamed of ?
He is ashamed of the way he has behaved towards Cordelia .
21. According to Lear , who is punished and who is not ?
The poor and powerless are always punished for their crimes while the rich and powerful do the same things but are not punished
22. What is the first sign that Lear's madness is beginning to
disappear ?
It is that when he recognizes Gloucester .
23. What has Goneril's servant Oswald been ordered to do ?
He has been ordered to find Gloucester and kill him .
24. Who prevents Oswald from killing Gloucester ? How ?
Edgar who is still in disguise fights Oswald and kills him .
25. What does Edgar find with Oswald after killing him ?
He finds a letter from Goneril to Edmund telling him to kill her
husband Albany so that he can marry her .
26. How does Cordelia feel when she sees her mad father ?
She feels very sad .
27. What does she do to him ?
She asks her doctor to give him medicine to make him well again .
28. What are Lear's and Cordelia's reactions when he wakes up?
Lear is confused and doesn't know where he is . He recognizes
Cordelia and expects her to be angry with him .
Cordelia kneels in front of him and asks for his blessing . She
makes him understand that she loves him and forgives him .
They are both very happy to be together again .

Book Questions / 82
2. Answer these questions .
a) Why does Goneril want Edmund to murder her husband ?
Because she can't marry Edmund while her husband is still alive .
b) Why does the Duke of Albany arrest Edmund ?
Because he wants to bring Edmund to justice for his treason .

Additional Questions
1. Does Edmund admit or deny when Regan asks him if he in love
with Goneril ?
He denies .
2. What does Edgar do with the letter he has taken from Oswald?
He gives it to Goneril's husband , Albany .
3. What is the gist of this letter ?
It is that Goneril has planned to kill her husband and marry his
killer .
4. What does Edgar do to his father when the battle begins ?
He hides him for safety under a tree .
5. Who is the leader of the English army ?
He is Edmund .
6. Which army wins the battle , the English or the French army ?
The English army .
7. What happens to Lear and Cordelia ?
They are both captured .
8. Describe Lear's feelings when he is captured ?
He is not afraid of going to prison if he can stay with Cordelia . He
also tries to make her happier .
9. What does Lear say to Cordelia to make her happier ?
He say : " Come , let's away to prison : We two will sing like birds
in the cage ."
10. How does Edmund decide to get rid of Lear and Cordelia ?
He give one of his soldiers a letter with secret orders to kill them .

11. Who understands the danger to Lear and Cordelia ?
It's Albany .
12. How does Albany try to help Lear and Cordelia ?
He asks Edmund to let him look after them .
13. What does Edmund tell Albany after that ?
He tells him that he will have them the next day , not now .
14. What does Goneril do to Regan when they begin to quarrel
about Edmund ?
Goneril gets rid of Regan by poisoning her .
15. What happens to Edmund ?
Albany arrests him .
16. Why does Albany arrest Edmund ?
He arrests him for treason .
17. How does Albany decide that Edmund must face the trial ?
By combat .
18. Who offers to fight Edmund ?
Edgar .
19. Who wins the fight ?
Edgar .
20. What does Edmund do when he falls close to death ?
He admits all his crimes .
21. When does Edgar show who really is ?
After he wins the fight and kills Edmund .
22. How does Gloucester die ?
Suffering from a huge heart attack , he dies happily , in his son's
arms .
23. What happens to Goneril when she realizes that her husband
knows about Edmund and her ?
She becomes desperate , runs away and kills herself with a knife in the heart .
24. What has Edmund ordered to do with Lear and Cordelia ?
He has ordered their death .
25. Does Edgar arrive the castle in time to save Lear and Cordelia?
No, he doesn't . He arrives too late.
26. Who dies first , Lear or Cordelia ?
Cordelia dies first.
27. How does Lear die ?
When Cordelia dies, he carries her in his arms . But he can't
endure this great sorrow , so his heart breaks and dies .
28. Who is left to bury the dead?
Kent, Edgar and Albany.
29. Who becomes the king of England?
Goneril's husband, the Duke of Albany.
1. من يمكن أن يكون قد قال أو فكر بما يلي ؟
وضح كل موقف .
أ ) " لا أستطيع أن أتحمل رؤية والدي المسكين
على هذه الحال ، كيف يمكن لأي شخص أن
يؤديه هكذا ويعامله بهذه القسوة ؟"
من الممكن أن يكون ( إدغار ) أو ( كورديليا ) .
فقد وجد إدغار والده قد أعماه كورنوول .
وفيما بعد وجدت كورديليا والدها الملك لير قد
أصبح مجنوناً بقسوة ابنتيه .
ب) " هل سأجنّ أخيراً أم إني مرتبك فقط ؟ كيف
يمكن أن اسقط من هذا العلو ولا أزال على قيد
الحياة ؟"
يمكن أن يقول هذا غلوسستر . فقد ظن أنه قفز من أعلى الجرف الصخري ومن المفترض أن قد مات ولكنه في الحقيقة سقط من ارتفاع قصير جداً .
ج) " يجب أن أفكر بسرعة ، كيف سأوقفها من
الحصول عليه حيث ان زوجها قد مات الآن ؟"
إنها غونرل ، حيث أرادت إدموند ، وعندما
مات زوج ريغان كانت غونرل قلقة من أن
تتزوج ريغان من إموند .
د) " ماذا ؟ لا اصدق هذا ! هذا يعني أن تلك المرأة
الفظيعة تحاول أن تجعل أخي يقتل زوجها ، هذا
أمر سيء للغاية ."
إنه إدغار ، حيث وجد رسالة تخبر غونرل فيها
إدموند بقتل زوجها ألباني .
هـ) " وأخيراً ! أبي ! ولكن هل حقاً أصبح مجنوناً
تماماً ؟ سأطلب من طبيبي أن يعطيه بعض
الدواء الذي يمكن أن يساعده ."
إنها كورديليا ، عندما وجدت والها الملك لير
طلبت من طبيبها إعطاءه بعض الدواء .
2. أجب الأسئلة التالية .
أ ) لما قرر غلوسستر القفز من على الجرف ؟
لأنه حزيناً جداَ لما فعله بـ ( إدغار ) وبما عاناه
على يدي كورنوول .
ب) لماذا شعر ألباني بأن زوجته غونرل شريرة ؟
لأنها ساعدت كورنوول وريغان في جعل
الملك لير مجنوناً وفي جعل غلوسستر أعمى .

3. أكمل ما يلي :
أ ) سمعت غونرل بأن زوج أختها توفي نتيجة ـــــ
هجوم خادمه خلال عملية إعماء غلوسستر .
ب) قاد إدغار والده إلى وسط حقل وليس إلى
جرف عال ـــ كما أراد والده .
ج) توقع الملك لير أن تكون كورديليا حانقة عليه
لأنه ـــ أساء التصرف معها .
د) كتبت غونرل رسالة إلى إدموند تخبره بأن يقتل
زوجها لأن ـــ زوجها الباني انقلب ضدها
ولأنها أرادت أن تتزوج إدموند .

أسئلة إضافية
1. أين التقي إدغار وغلوسستر بعد طرد الأخير
من قلعة ريغان ؟
تقابلا في أرض جرداء تعصف بها الريح .

2. كيف عامل إدغار والده عندئذ ؟
أخذ يرعاه ويعتني به .
3. كيف قدم إدغار نفسه لأبيه الأعمى ؟
لم يخبره عن حقيقته ، بل تظاهر بأنه " توم
المسكين المجنون " .
4. بم ذكر " توم المسكين المجنون " غلوسستر ،
وماذا تمنى ؟
ذكره بولده إدغار ، وتمنى أن يضمه بذراعيه
مرة أخرى .
5. بماذا شبه غلوسستر كلاً من الآلهة والناس ؟
شبه الناس بالذباب والآلهة بالأولاد الذين
يعذبونهم من أجل المتعة .
6. لماذا لم يستطع إدغار التحدث إلى والده ؟
بسبب حزنه لرؤيته أباه أعمى .
7. إلى أين طلب غلوسستر من غدغار أن يأخذه
ولماذا ؟
طلب منه أن يأخذه إلى دوفر ليلقي بنفسه من
أعلى الجرف الصخري وينهي حياته التعيسة .
8. هل وافق إدغار أخذه إلى هناك ؟
وافق على أخذه ليس إلى دوفر وإنما إلى وسط حقل
9. ماذا فعل غلوسستر في وسط الحقل ؟
قفز وأبقى بنفسه على الأرض .
10. ماذا فعل إدغار عندما سقط والده على
الأرض ؟
رفعه متظاهراً بأنه غريب يريد المساعدة .
11. ماذا جعل إدغار والده يظن بعد سقوطه ؟
جعله يظن بأنه سقط ونجا بمعجزة .
12. كيف بدأت غونرل تعامل زوجها بعد قوعها
في حب إدموند ؟
بدأت تحتقره وتعتبره شخصاً ضعيفاً .
13. ما رد فعل ألباني تجاه سلوك غونرل ؟
بدأ يكره غونرل وريغان وكورنوول وإدموند
على ما قاموا به .
14. " أنت لا تساوين الغبار الذي تذروه الرياح
العاتية على وجهك ." من قائل هذه ، ولمن
قالها ، ولماذا ؟
قالها ألباني لزوجته غونرل لأنه بدأ يكرهها .
15. متى توفي كورنوول ؟
بعد هجوم الخادم أثناء إعماء غلوسستر .
16. لماذا قلقت غونرل بأخبار وفاة كورنوول ؟
لأن أختها ريغان أصبحت أرملة وربما
ستتزوج إدموند ، الرجل الذي أرادته هي لنفسها .
17. ماذا اعتبر ألباني إدموند ، وماذا قرر أن يفعل
اعتبر إدموند خائناً فظيعاً ، وقرر معاقبته .
18. أين ترك ملك فرنسا كورديليا ؟
تركها مع جيشه قرب دوفر .
19. ماذا أخبر (كنت) كورديليا في رسالته ؟
أخبرها عن إصابة والدها بالجنون .
20. مم كان (لير) خجلاً ؟
كان خجلاً من الطريقة التي عامل بها كورديليا .
21. حسب رأي (لير) ، من الذي يعاقب ومن الذي
لا يعاقب ؟
الفقراء والمستضعفون ً يعاقبون ، بينما لا يعاقب الأغنياء والأقوياء مع أنهم يرتكبون نفس الجرائم . 22. ما هي أول علامات ذهاب جنون (لير ) ؟
عندما تعرف على غلوسستر .
23. بم أمر ( أوزولد) خادم غونرل أن يقوم به ؟
أمر بالعثور على غلوسستر وقتله .
24. من الذي منع (أوزولد) من قتل غلوسستر
وكيف كان ذلك ؟
إنه إدغار الذي كان لا يزال متخفياً ، حيث قتل
أوزولد .
25. ماذا وجد إدغار مع أوزولد بعد قتله ؟
رسالة من غونرل إلى إدموند تخبره بأن يقتل
زوجها ألباني حتى يتمكن من الزواج بها .
26. ما شعور كورديليا عندا رأت والدها المجنون؟
شعرت بالحزن الشديد .
27. ماذا فعلت كورديليا لأبيها ؟
طلبت من طبيبها أن يعطيه دواءً يعيد له عافيته .
28. ما رد فعل كل من لير وكورديليا عندما تعافى
ارتبك لير ولم يعرف أين هو ، وعرف ابنته
وتوقع أن تكون غاضبة . بينما هي جعلته يفهم أنها
تحبه وقد سامحته . وكانا سعيدين يالتقائهما ثانية .

الفصل الخامس
أسئلة الكتاب / 82
2. أجب الأسئلة التالية .
أ ) لماذا أرادت غونرل من إدموند قتل زوجها ؟
لأنها لا تستطيع الزواج منه وزجها على قيد الحياة
ب) لماذا اعتقل دوق ألباني إدموند ؟
لأنه أراد أن يقدمه للعدالة بسبب خيانته .

أسئلة إضافية
1. هل أقر إدموند أم أنكر عندما سألته ريغان فيما
إذا كان يحب غونرل ؟
لقد أنكر .
2. ماذا فعل إدغار بالرسالة التي أخذها من أوزولد
أعطاها لزوج غونرل ( ألباني) .
3. ما فحوى هذه الرسالة ؟
تنص على أن غونرل قد خططت لقتل زوجها
والزواج من قاتله .
4. ماذا فعل إدغار لأبيه عندما بدأت المعركة ؟
خبأه تحت شجرة من أجل سلامته .
5. من كان قائد الجيش الانجليزي ؟
إدموند .
6. أي الجيشين ربح المعركة ؟
الجيش الانجليزي .
7. ماذا حدث لـ(لير) وكورديليا ؟
وقعا في الأسر .

8. صف شعور لير عندما وقع في الأسر .
لم يكن خائفاً من الذهاب إلى السجن إذا كان يمكنه البقاء مع كورديليا ، وحاول أيضاً أن يجعلها سعيدة
9. ماذا قال لير لكورديليا ليجعلها سعيدة ؟
" هيا نذهب إلى السجن : سنغني مثل طائرين
في القفص " .
10. كيف قرر إدموند أن يتخلص من لير وكورديليا
أعطى أحد جنوده رسالة تتضمن أوامر سرية
بقتلهما .
11. من أدرك الخطر المحدق بـ(لير) وكورديليا ؟
إنه ( ألباني )
12. كيف حاول ألباني مساعدة لير وكورديليا ؟
طلب من إدموند السماح له برعايتهما .
13. ماذا أخبر إدموند ألباني عندئذ ؟
أخبره بأنه سيعطيه إياهما في اليوم التالي وليس
الآن .
14. ماذا فعلت غونرل بـ ريغان عندما بدءا
بالمشاجرة حول إدموند ؟
تخلصت منها بتسميمها .
15. ماذا حدث لإدموند ؟
اعتقله ألباني .
16. لماذا اعتقل ألباني إدموند ؟
بسبب الخيانة .
17. كيف قرر ألباني بأن يواجه إدموند المحكمة ؟
عن طريق النزال .
18. من يتقدم لنزال إدموند ؟
إدغار .
19. من ربح القتال ؟
20. ماذا فعل إدموند عندما سقط كالميت ؟
اعترف بكل جرائمه .
21. متى كشف إدغار عن شخصيته الحقيقية ؟
بعد فوزه في النزال وقتله إدموند .
22. كيف مات غلوسستر ؟
لقد عانى من نوبة قلبية حادة ، حيث مات سعيداً
بين ذراعي ابنه إدغار .
23. ماذا حصل لـ غونرل عندما أدركت أن زوجها
يعرف بأمرها وأمر إدموند ؟
أصبحت يائسة وهربت وقتلت نفسها بطعنة
سكين في قلبها .
24. ماذا أمر إدموند بأن يفعل بـ(لير ) وكورديليا ؟
أمر بقتلهما .
25. هل وصل إدغار القلعة في الوقت المحدد
لإنقاذ لير وكورديليا ؟
كلا ، لقد وصل متأخراً .
26. من مات أولاً ، لير أم كورديليا ؟
ماتت كورديليا أولاً .
27. كيف مات لير ؟
عندما ماتت كورديليا ، حملها بين ذراعيه . إلا
أنه لم يستطع تحمل الحزن الكبير ، فانفطر
فؤاده ومات .
28. من بقي لدفن الموتى ؟
(كنت) و (إدغار) و (ألباني) .
29. من أصبح ملك انجلترا بعد ذلك ؟
زوج غونرل ، دوق ألباني .

1. Lear is king of what country?
(A) France
(B) Britain
(C) East Anglia
(D) Scotland

2. Which one of Lear’s daughters is sent into exile المنفى ?
(A) Goneril
(B) Regan
(C) Cordelia
(D) Juliet

3. Which one of Lear’s counselors مستشارين blames يلوم the king for exiling his daughter?
(A) Albany
(B) Kent
(C) Cornwall
(D) Edmund

4. Who is Gloucester’s bastard غير شرعي son?
(A) Kent
(B) Edgar
(C) Albany
(D) Edmund

5. When Lear visits Goneril, what does she demand يطالب of him?
(A) That he acknowledge her as the sole queen of the realm
(B) That he send away some of his knights
(C) That he execute Cordelia
(D) That he send away the Fool

6. When they hear that Lear is coming to visit them, where do Regan and Cornwall go?
(A) To Gloucester’s castle
(B) To France
(C) To Goneril’s home
(D) To London

7. Why is Kent thrown into the stocks آلة التعذيب ?
(A) For trying to kill Goneril
(B) For beating Oswald with the flat of his sword
(C) For threatening Lear’s life
(D) For praising Cordelia in public

8. When he flees فر from his father, how does Edgar disguise تنكر himself?
(A) As a common beggar
(B) As a soldier
(C) As Edmund
(D) As Shakespeare

9. When Lear tells Regan that Goneril has wronged خطأ him, what does Regan advise him to do?
(A) Kill himself
(B) Banish Goneril
(C) Make Regan the sole queen
(D) Go to Goneril and ask her forgiveness

10. After he curses يلعن both Goneril and Regan, what does Lear do?
(A) He storms out of Gloucester’s castle, accompanied by the Fool
(B) He disinherits both daughters
(C) He sets out in search of Cordelia
(D) He dies

11. Whom does Lear meet living in a little hovel كوخ on the heath?
(A) Albany
(B) Edgar, in disguise
(C) Cordelia
(D) Edmund

12. Why is Gloucester accused اتهم of treason الخيانة ?
(A) Because he attempts to assassinate Goneril and Regan
(B) Because he throws Lear in prison
(C) Because he exiles Edgar
(D) Because Edmund reveals letters showing that he knows of a French invasion

13. Where does Gloucester send Lear and his attendants مرافقين ?
(A) To Dover
(B) To London
(C) To Gloucester’s castle
(D) To Goneril’s castle

14. How is Gloucester punished for his “treason”?
(A) He is burned
(B) He is blinded
(C) He is branded with a scarlet letter
(D) He is exiled

15. Who encounters يصادف Gloucester on the heathالأرض البور and offers to lead him to Dover?
(A) The Fool
(B) Edmund
(C) Edgar
(D) Lear

16. Who is leading يقود the army that lands at Dover?
(A) Albany
(B) Kent
(C) Cordelia
(D) Lear

17. Why does Gloucester want to reach the cliffsمنحدرات of Dover?
(A) He wants to see the invasion fleet
(B) He thinks Edgar is waiting for him there
(C) He wants to throw himself over the cliffs
(D) He wants to see the famed white cliffs before he dies
18. To whom are both Goneril and Regan attracted منجذبتان ?
(A) Edmund
(B) Edgar
(C) Albany
(D) Cornwall
19. Before the battle between the French and English armies, to whose camp معسكر is Lear brought?
(A) Cordelia’s
(B) Edmund’s
(C) Gloucester’s
(D) Albany’s

20. What happens to Lear and Cordelia during the battle معركة ?
(A) They are separated from one another
(B) Edmund takes them captive
(C) They are both killed
(D) Cordelia is killed and Lear is taken captive


Questions on THE BET

Cast of characters
The banker (the host) المصرفي (المضيف)
The lawyer (the prisoner) المحامي (السجين)
The guests (scholars, journalists…) الضيوف
The watchman (the guard) الحارس
القضايا التي تعالجها القصة
This story addresses
• capital punishment, عقوبة الإعدام
• gambling, المقامرة
• greed, الجشع
• Violence. العنف

At a dinner party in the beginning of this story, an old banker and a young lawyer argue over whether or not "capital punishment and life imprisonment are equally immoral." To determine the truth in this matter they decide to make a bet, agreeing that the Lawyer will live without human contact for fifteen years, and in return, the Banker will pay him 2 millions. After providing the Lawyer with a cell, innumerable books, and other comforts for fifteen years, the Banker realizes he is about to lose the bet. Facing bankruptcy and humiliation, he decides to kill the Lawyer. The Banker is stunned when he learns that minutes before he would have received millions, the Lawyer renounced his prize and abandons civilization.

في حفلة عشاء بداية هذه القصة يتجادل مصرفي عجوز ومحام شاب فيما إن كانت عقوبتا الإعدام والسجن مدى الحياة متساويتين في اللاأخلاقية أم لا. ولتقرير الحقيقة يتراهنان على أن يعيش المحامي دون اتصال مع البشر لخمسة عشر عاما ويدفع المصرفي بالمقابل مليونين له. بعد توفير الزنزانة للسجين والكتب العديدة والوسائل الأخرى لخمسة عشر عاما، يدرك المصرفي انه سيخسر الرهان. وفي مواجهة الإذلال والإفلاس يقرر قتل المحامي. لكنه يصعق عندما يعلم أن المحامي الذي سيتلقى الملايين بعد دقائق يتخلى عن المكافأة ويتنكر للمدنية.


The story begins in an autumn night with an old banker in his study, remembering how, fifteen years ago, he had given a party on another autumn night. There, intellectual men were discussing capital punishment; the majority of the guests believe it to be wrong, but the banker disagrees, saying that capital punishment kills a man at once, but life imprisonment kills a man very slowly. One guest, a twenty-five year old lawyer, says that both capital punishment and life imprisonment are wrong, but he would gladly choose the second, if necessary.

تبدأ القصة في احد ليالي الخريف بينما المصرفي العجوز في مكتبه يتذكر إقامته لحفلة قبل خمسة عشر عاما في ليلة مشابهة. كان في الحفلة مثقفون يناقشون عقوبة الإعدام. وقد اعتقدت الغالبية إنها خطا لكن المصرفي اعترض قائلا إن عقوبة الإعدام تقتل فورا لكن السجن مدى الحياة يقتل ببطء. احد الضيوف، محام في الخامسة والعشرين قال إن العقوبتين خاطئتان لكنه إن خير فسيختار السجن مدى الحياة.
The excited banker then declared that he would bet him two millions that he wouldn't stay in solitary confinement for five years. The young man takes the bet, but changes the term to fifteen years. The banker fifteen years later wonders why he took the bet at all.

ويعلن المصرفي المنفعل انه سيراهن بمليونين على ان المحامي لن يمكث في الحجز الانفرادي لخمس سنوات لكن المحامي يقبل الرهان ويغير الشرط لخمس عشرة سنة. ويتساءل المصرفي بعد تلك المدة لماذا قام بهذا الرهان.

It was then decided the lawyer was put in a lodge in the banker's garden, and it is made so that he cannot see human beings, hear any voices, cross away from the lodge, or read any newspapers and letters. His sentence begins at midnight on November 14, 1870, and ends at midnight on November 14th, 1885. Any attempt to break the conditions will result in the void of this bet.

ويتقرر أن يوضع المحامي في غرفة في حديقة المصرفي مصممة بحيث لا يرى البشر ولا يسمع الأصوات أو يخرج منها أو يقرا الصحف أو الرسائل. ويبدأ حكمه منتصف ليل الرابع عشر من نوفمبر عام 1870 وينتهي منتصف ليل الرابع عشر من نوفمبر عام 1885. أن أي محاولة لنقض الشروط ستؤدي لإلغاء الرهان.

For the first year of confinement, the prisoner suffers from depression and loneliness. He refused any wine and tobacco, and sends for light reading material. In the second, the prisoner does not play the piano. He would angrily talk to himself.

في سنته الأولى من الحجز يعاني السجين الوحدة والإحباط ويرفض النبيذ أو التبغ ويطلب قراءات سهلة. وفي السنة الثانية لا يعزف البيانو ويحادث نفسه بغضب.

In the sixth year, he begins to study languages, philosophy, and history, throwing himself into studies. In the tenth year, the prisoner reads the Gospel, and in the last two years the lawyer read natural sciences and William Shakespeare and Lord Byron.

ويبدأ في السنة السادسة دراسة اللغات والفلسفة والتاريخ مكبا بنفسه على الدراسة. ويقرا الإنجيل في السنة العاشرة وفي آخر سنتين يقرا العلوم الطبيعية وشكسبير ولورد بايرون.

And fifteen years later, the older banker realizes that if he pays the lawyer he is ruined, as he is now bankrupt due to wild gambling on the stock market. At three o' clock, the banker takes the key to the lodge, and looks through the window as the prisoner sleeps. Opening the door, the old banker discovers that the lawyer now looks similar to a skeleton. The banker thinks of murdering to avoid paying the two millions, but reads a letter that the prisoner has written first.

ويدرك المصرفي العجوز بعد خمس عشرة سنة انه إذا ما دفع المال لمحامي فانه سيفلس لأنه مكسور بسبب أعمال المقامرة في البورصة. وفي تمام الساعة الثالثة يأخذ المصرفي مفتاح الغرفة وينظر عبر النافذة ويفتح الباب ليكتشف أن المحامي يشبه الهيكل العظمي. ويفكر المصرفي في قتله تجنبا لدفع المليونين لكنه يقرر قراءة رسالة كتبها السجين أولا.

The prisoner expresses contempt toward freedom, life, and health in the letter, but also expresses love toward the books he has read in the fifteen years. Thus, fully renouncing the world, he declines the two millions, preferring to go five hours before the deadline; thus breaking the agreement.

ويظهر السجين احتقاره للحرية والحياة والصحة في رسالته غير انه يعبر عن حبه للكتب التي قرأ في السنوات الماضية. وبالتالي، يتخلى كليا عن العالم ويتنازل عن المليونين مفضلا الخروج خمس ساعات قبل الموعد المحدد خارقا الاتفاق.

The banker, weeping, kisses the lawyer on the head, and goes out of the lodge, feeling self-loathing. The next morning, the watchman explains to the banker that the man has disappeared, climbing out of the lodge window and escaping. The banker takes the letter and locks it up in a safe.
ناحبا، يقبل المصرفي المحامي على رأسه ويغادر الغرفة شاعرا بالاحتقار لنفسه. وفي الصباح التالي يشرح الحارس للمصرفي ان الرجل قد اختفى متسلقا نافذة الغرفة وفارا. ويأخذ المصرفي الرسالة ويضعها في خزنته.
1. When and where does the beginning of the story take place?
It takes place at a dark autumn night in the banker's house.
2. Who is the host?
The host is the banker .
3. What kind of men are the guests?
Some of the guests are journalists and intellectual men .
4. What is the main thing they talk of?
They talked of capital punishment / death penalty / death sentence
5. What does the banker think of death penalty?
He thinks that it is more moral and more humane than
imprisonment for life .
6. Why does the banker think that death penalty is more moral
and more humane than imprisonment for life ?
Because capital punishment kills a man at once , but lifelong
imprisonment kills him slowly .
7. What do the majority of the guests think of capital punishment
They think that it is out of date , immoral and unsuitable for
Christian states .
8. Why does one of the guests think that both capital
punishment and imprisonment for life are equally immoral ?
Because they both have the same object – to take away life. The
state is not God , so it does not have the right to take life .
9. What does the young lawyer think of capital punishment and
imprisonment for life ?
He thinks that both are equally immoral.
10. Which would the lawyer choose if he had to choose between
the death penalty and imprisonment for life ?
He would choose imprisonment for life .
11. Why would he choose life imprisonment?
Because he thinks that living anyhow is better than not living at all.
12. What is the banker's reaction when the lawyer says he would
choose life imprisonment ?
He says this is not true and he bets him two millions if he stays in
solitary confinement for five years .
13. Does the lawyer accept the banker's bet?
Yes , he accepts to stay not five but fifteen years .
14. How long does the banker expect the lawyer to stay in
solitary confinement ?
He expects him to stay three or four years .
15. Why does the banker expect the lawyer to stay 3 or 4 years ?
Because he thinks that voluntary confinement is harder than
compulsory confinement .
16. Why does the banker regret the bet?
Because he thinks it is a waste of the lawyer's life and the banker's
money , and it does not really prove anything .
17. According to the banker , why does he suggest the bet and
the lawyer accepts it ?
The banker thinks it is the caprice of a pampered man , and the
lawyer accepts it because of his greed for money .
18. How and where should the young lawyer spend his captivity ?
Under the strictest supervision in one of the lodges in the banker's
garden .
19. According to the bet agreement , what shouldn't the lawyer do
for fifteen years ?
He shouldn't cross the threshold of the lodge , see human beings ,
hear human voice and receive letters or newspapers .
20. What is he allowed to do ?
He is allowed to have a musical instrument and books, to write
letters , to drink wine and to smoke .
21. According to the bet agreement , what were the only relations
the lawyer could have with outer world ?
By a little window made purposely for that object .
22. When does the imprisonment begin and when does it end ?
It begins on Nov. 14 , 1870 , and ends on Nov. 14 , 1885 .
23. What will release the banker from the obligation to pay the
lawyer two millions ?
The slightest attempt on the lawyer's part to break the conditions .
الجزء الأول
1. متى وأين حدثت بداية القصة ؟
في ليلة خريفية مظلمة في منزل
المصرفي .
2. من هو المضيف ؟
المصرفي .
3. ما نوعيات ضيوف المصرفي ؟
كان بعضهم صحفيين ومفكرين .
4. ما القضية الرئيسة التي أثاروها ؟
تحدثوا عن عقوبة الإعدام .
5. ما رأي المصرفي عقوبة الإعدام ؟
يرى أنها أكثر أخلاقية وإنسانية من
السجن المؤبد .
6. لماذا يرى المصرفي أن عقوبة الإعدام
أكثر أخلاقية وإنسانية من السجن المؤبد ؟
لأن عقوبة الإعدام تقتل الإنسان فوراً ،
بينما السجن المؤبد يقتله ببطء .
7. ما رأي معظم الضيوف بعقوبة الإعدام ؟
يرون أنها قد عفا عليها الزمن وغير
إنسانية وغير مناسبة للدول النصرانية .
8. لماذا يرى أحد الضيوف أن كلاً من عقوبة
الإعدام والسجن المؤبد غير أخلاقي ؟
9. لأن لهما هدف واحد ، هو سلب الحياة .
والدولة ليست إلهاً ، لذا ليس لها الحق بأخذ
الحياة .
10. لو خير المحامي بين عقوبة الإعدام
والسجن مدى الحياة ، فأيهما سيختار ؟
سيختار السجن مدى الحياة ؟
11. لماذا سيختار السجن مدى الحياة ؟
لأنه يرى أن الحياة أفضل من عدمها .
12. ما رد فعل المصرفي عندما قال المحامي
بأنه سيختار السجن المؤبد ؟
قال بأن هذا ليس صحيحاً وانه يراهنه
بمليونين إذا بقي في العزل الانفرادي
خمس سنوات .
13. هل قبل المحامي رهان المصرفي ؟
أجل ، قبل بأن يقضي 15 عاماً وليس
5 سنوات فقط .
14. كم توقع المصرفي أن يبقى المحامي في
العزل الانفرادي ؟
توقع أن يبقى 3 أو 4 سنوات .
15. لماذا توقع المصرفي أن يبقى المحامي
في العزل الانفرادي 3 أو 4 سنوات فقط ؟
لأنه يظن أن العزل الطوعيّ أصعب بكثير
من العزل الإجباري .
16. لماذا ندم المصرفي على الرهان ؟
لأنه يظن أن الرهان مضيعة لماله و لحياة
المحامي ولا يثبت أي شيء .
17. حسب رأي المصرفي ، لماذا اقترح
الرهان ؟ ولماذا قبله المحامي ؟
ظن المصرفي أن اقتراحه الرهان كان
نزوة رجل مدلل ، وقبله المحامي طمعاً في
المال .
18. كيف وأين يجب على المحامي أن يقضي
سنوات سجنه ؟
تحت إشراف صارم في إحدى الغرف في
حديقة المصرفي .
19. بناءً على اتفاقية الرهان ، ماذا يجب ألا
يفعله المحامي لمدة 15 عاماً ؟
يجب عليه ألا يتجاوز عتبة الكوخ أو يرى
إنساناً أو يسمه صوت إنسان أو يتلقى
رسائل أو صحفاً .
20. ماذا يسمح له بفعله ؟
يسمح له بالحصول على آلة موسيقية
وكتب وأن يكتب رسائل ويشرب ويدخن .
21. بناءً على اتفاقية الرهان ، ما هي
العلاقات الوحيدة التي يمكن للمحامي أن
يجريها مع العالم الخارجي ؟
عن طريق نافذة صغيرة عملت خصيصاً
لهذا الغرض .
22. متى تبدأ مدة السجن ومتى تنتهي ؟
تبدأ في 14 / 11 / 1870 وتنتهي في
14 / 11 / 1885 .
23. ما الذي سيحرر المصرفي من التزامه
بدفع المليونين للمحامي ؟
أبسط محاولة من جانب الحامي لخلاق
شروط الاتفاقية .

1. Describe the prisoner in the first year of his confinement .
a) He suffers severely from loneliness and depression .
b) He plays the piano .
c) He reads books
d) He refuses wine and tobacco .
2. Why does he refuse wine and tobacco ?
He refuses wine because it excites the desires , and he refuses
tobacco because it spoils the air of his room .
3. What kind of books does he read in the first year ?
They are mainly of a light character ; novels with a complicated
love plot , sensational and fantastic stories .
4. Describe the prisoner in the second year of his confinement .
He stops playing the piano and asks only for classic books .
5. Describe the prisoner in the fifth year of his confinement .
a) He plays the piano again .
b) He asks for wine .
c) He does nothing but eating , drinking and lying on his bed .
d) He yawns and talks angrily to himself .
e) He doesn't read books .
f) He sometimes writes for hours at night , then hears everything
in the morning .
g) He sometimes cries .
6. Describe the prisoner in the sixth year of his confinement .
He begins to study languages , philosophy and history .
7. How many volumes does the prisoner request within 4 years ?
He requests about 600 volumes .
8. Why is difficult to get all the books the prisoner requests ?
Because he requests so many books – about 600 books within
four years .
9. What is special about the letter which the prisoner sends to the
jailer ?
It is written in six languages .
10. What does the prisoner ask the jailer to do with the letter ?
He asks him to show it to people who know the languages in
order to read it and find out whether it has any mistakes . And if
there are no mistakes in it , he also asks him to fire a shot in the
garden .
11. Why does the prisoner believe he has mastered six languages ?
Because he has written the letter in six languages and nobody
have found any mistakes in it .
12. Why does the banker asks for two shots to be fires ?
Perhaps to congratulate the prisoner .
13. Describe the prisoner after the tenth year of his confinement .
He sits immovably at the table and reads nothing but the Gospel .
14. Why is it strange to the banker that the prisoner spends a long
time reading the Gospel ?
Because the Gospel is a thin book and it can be easily understood ,
and the prisoner has read about 600 books in only 4 years .
15. Describe the prisoner in the last two years of his confinement .
He reads a large number of books on different topics , such as
natural sciences , poetry for Byron and Shakespeare , chemistry ,
medicine , a novel , philosophy and theology .
16. What does the prisoner's reading suggest about his moods at
different times ?
The changes in his reading habits suggest changes in his moods :
first a need for entertainment and interest , then frustration and
despair , then enthusiastically using his time to study , and finally a
powerful hunger for deep meaning , knowledge and understanding .

الجزء الثاني
1. صف أحوال السجين في السنة الأولى من
حجزه .
أ ) عانى بشدة من الوحدة والكبت
ب) عزف على البيانو ج) قرأ الكتب
د) رفض الخمر والتبغ

2. لماذا رفض الخمر والتبغ ؟
رفض الخمر لأنها تثير الرغبات ، ورفض
التبغ لآن التبغ يفسد جو الغرفة .
3. ما نوعية الكتب التي قرأها السجين في
السنة الأولى ؟
كانت بشكل رئيس ذات طابع تسلية
مثل روايات الحب والقصص المثيرة .
4. صف أحوال السجين في السنة الثانية من
حجزه .
توقف عن عزف البيانو وطلب الكتب
الكلاسيكية فقط .
5. صف أحوال السجين في السنة الخامسة من
حجزه .
أ ) يعزف البيانو مرة أخرى ب) يطلب الخمر ج) لا يفعل شيئاً سوى الأكل والشرب والاستلقاء على الفراش د) يتثاءب ويحدث نفسه بغضب هـ ) لا يقرأ الكتب و) يكتب أحياناً لساعات طويلة في الليل ثم يمزقه في الصباح ز) أحياناً كان يبكي
6. صف أحوال السجين في السنة السادسة من
حجزه .
يبدأ بدراسة اللغات والفلسفة والتاريخ .
7. كم مجلداً طلب السجين في 4 سنوات ؟
طلب حوالي 600 مجلداً .
8. لماذا كان من الصعب توفير الكتب التي
طلبها السجين ؟
لأنه طلب الكثير من الكتب .
9. ما الشيء المميز في الرسالة التي أرسلها
السجين إلى السجان ؟
كانت مكتوبة بست لغات .
10. ماذا طلب السجين من السجان أن يفعل
بالرسالة ؟
طلب منه أن يري الرسالة للذين يعرفون
اللغات ليكتشفوا فيما إذا كان فيها أخطاء .
وطلب منه أيضاً أن يطلق طلقة في الحديقة
إذا لم يكن هناك أخطاء في الرسالة .
11. لماذا يعتقد السجين بأنه أتقن 6 لفات ؟
لأنه لم يكتشف أحد أي خطأ في الرسالة .
12. لماذا طلب المصرفي إطلاق طلقتين ؟
ربما ليهنئ السجين .
13. صف أحوال السجين بعد السنة العاشرة
من حجزه .
كان يجلس إلى الطاولة بلا حراك ولا يقرأ
شيئاً سوى الإنجيل .
14. لماذا بدا هذا غريباً للمصرفي ؟
لأن الإنجيل كتاب صغير سهل الاستيعاب
ولأن السجين قرأ أكثر من 600 مجلد في
4 سنوات فقط .
15. صف أحوال السجين في آخر سنتين من
حجزه .
قرأ عدداً كبيراً من الكتب دون تمييز ،
ذات مواضيع متنوعة ، مثل العلوم
الطبيعية وشعر بايرون وشكسبير ، والكيمياء والطب والأدب والفلسفة واللاهوت.
16. ماذا تقترح قراءات السجين حول مزاجه
في أوقات مختلفة ؟
إن التغيرات في عادات قراءته تقترح
تغيرات في مزاحه : في البداية كان الحاجة
إلى التسلية والتشويق ، ثم الإحباط واليأس ،
ثم استغلال وقته للدراسة بطريقة حماسية ،
وأخيراً نهم قوي للمعنى والمعرفة والفهم
العميق .
1. Why is the banker frightened few hours before the bet ends?
If he gives the lawyer the 2 millions, he will be ruined.
2. What happens to the banker during the years of the bet?
He loses his money through desperate gambling on the stock exchange.
3. What is the banker's main worry?
It is to give all what he has to the lawyer and look like a beggar.
4. How does the banker describe the bet?
He describes it as "cursed bet".
5. What does the banker decide to do in order to save himself from bankruptcy?
He decides to kill the lawyer.
6. At what time does the banker go to the lodge to do his crime?
At 3 am.
7. What does the banker do to make sure that the watchman is away?
He calls him twice.
8. Where might have the watchman been?
He might have been sleeping somewhere either in the kitchen or in the greenhouse.
9. Whom does the banker think will be accused of the murder if it happens?
The watchman.
10. How does the banker light his way through darkness?
He fires matches.
11. Despite all the noise made by the banker, the lawyer doesn’t move. Why?
He was asleep.
12. What does the banker think about the lawyer's steadiness?
He thinks that 15 years of prison taught him to sit still.
13. How does the lawyer look like after 15 years in prison?
He is a skeleton with long curls and shaggy beard. His face is yellow and his skin is drawn tight over his bones. He has a long narrow back and hollow cheeks.
14. How does the banker intend to kill the lawyer?
He intends to stifle him with the pillow.
15. Why does the banker think that stifling the lawyer is the best way?
He thinks that nobody will find any sign of violent death.

الجزء الثالث

1. لم شعر المصرفي بالخوف ساعات قبل نهاية الرهان؟
لأنه لو أعطى المليونين للمحامي لأصبح مفلسا.

2. ماذا حل بالمصرفي خلال سنوات الرهان؟
خسر نقوده في مراهنات محمومة بالبورصة.

3. ما هو قلق المصرفي الرئيس؟
أن يعطي جميع ما يملك للمحامي ويبدو مثل المتسول.
4. كيف يصف المصرفي الرهان؟
يصفه بالرهان الملعون.
5. ماذا يقرر المصرفي أن يفعل لإنقاذ نفسه من الإفلاس؟
يقرر أن يقتل المحامي.

6. متى يذهب المصرفي إلى غرفة السجين لتنفيذ جريمته؟
في الثالثة صباحا.

7. ماذا يفعل المصرفي للتأكد أن الحارس غير موجود؟
يناديه مرتين.

8. أين يمكن أن يكون الحارس؟
نائما في مكان ما في المطبخ أو في الدفيئة.

9. من باعتقاد المصرفي سيتهم بالجريمة إن تمت؟

10. كيف يضيء المصرفي طريقه للغرفة؟
بإشعال الثقاب.

11. رغم كل الضجيج الذي أصدره المصرفي لم يتحرك المحامي.لماذا؟
لقد كان نائما.

12. ماذا اعتقد المصرفي عن ثبات المحامي دون حراك؟
اعتقد أن 15 عاما من السجن علمته الجلوس بلا حراك.

13. كيف يبدو المحامي بعد 15 عاما في السجن؟
بدا هيكلا عظميا مع جدائل شعر طويلة ولحية شعثاء. وجهه كان اصفر اللون وجلده مشدودا فوق عظامه. ظهره كان طويلا دقيقا ووجنتاه مجوفتان.

14. كيف يقرر المصرفي قتل المحامي؟
بخنقه بالوسادة.
15. لماذا يعتقد المصرفي أن الخنق هو أفضل سبيل؟
لان أحدا لن يجد علامات على موت عنيف(قتل).

1.What is there in front of the prisoner at the table?
There is a sheet of paper with something written in fine handwriting.
2. To whom is the written page addressed?
It is addressed to the banker.
3. What have the books given the lawyer?
They have given him wisdom.
4. What does the lawyer despise?
He despises freedom, life, health, all the good things in the world, and all the books he has read.
5. Why does the lawyer despise wisdom and the blessing of this world?
He thinks they are all worthless and deceptive like a mirage.
6. What ultimate truth does the lawyer reach?
It is that death will wipe all off the face of earth.
7. How does the lawyer prove that he despises all they live by?
He renounces the two millions.
8. What does the banker do when he reads the paper?
He kisses the lawyer and leaves the lodge.
9. How does the lawyer's letter affect the banker?
He leaves the lodge weeping. He cries all night and sleeps late.
10. How does the lawyer deprive himself of the right to take the money?
He will go from his lodge five hours before the time fixed and so break the compact.
11. How does the lawyer escape?
He climbs the window into the garden and leaves through the gate.
12. What does the banker do when the watchman tells him that the prisoner left?
He goes at once to the lodge to make sure of the escape, take the paper and put it in his safe.
الجزء الرابع
1. ماذا يوجد أمام السجين على الطاولة؟
قصاصة من الورق عليها كتابة بخط أنيق.

2. لمن وجهت هذه القصاصة؟
وجهت للمصرفي.

3. ماذا منحت الكتب المحامي؟
منحته الحكمة.

4. ماذا يحتقر المحامي؟
يحتقر الحرية والحياة والصحة وكل ما هو جميل في الحياة وجميع الكتب التي قرأ.
5. لماذا يحتقر المحامي الحكمة وجميع نعم الحياة؟
يعتقد أنها عديمة القيمة وخداعة كالسراب.

6. ما الحقيقة المطلقة التي وصل إليها المحامي؟
أن الموت سيمحوننا جميعا عن وجه الأرض.

7. كيف يثبت المحامي انه يحتقر جميع ما يحيون لأجله؟
يتخلى عن المليونين.

8. ماذا يفعل المصرفي عندما يقرأ الرسالة؟
يقبل المحامي ويغادر الغرفة.

9. كيف أثرت رسالة المحامي على المصرفي؟
غادر الغرفة ناحبا وبكى طوال الليل ونام متأخرا.

10. كيف حرم المحامي نفسه من حقه في اخذ النقود؟
سيخرج من الغرفة قبل خمس ساعات من الموعد المضروب حتى يفسخ العقد.

11. كيف فر المحامي؟
تسلق النافذة للحديقة وغادر من البوابة.

12. ماذا فعل المصرفي عندما اخبره الحارس بفرار السجين؟
ذهب مباشرة إلى الغرفة للتأكد من الهرب واخذ الورقة واحتفظ بها داخل خزنته.

Table of actions and books he read
جدول الإعمال والكتب التي قراها تبعا لسنوات السجن


" You can lead the horse to water, but you can't make him drink "

An English Proverb

The " saying " means that you can give someone the opportunity to do something but he may still refuse to do it.

An arabic translation might be "بامكانك أن تقود الحصان الى الماء لكنك لن تستطيع اجباره على الشرب "
In this post, we would like to see more Arabic equivalents to this saying and would like to see your own point of views.


Why you need to get your message across

Why Communications Skills Are So Important:

The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others. This is a process that involves both the sender of the message and the receiver. This process leaves room for error, with messages often misinterpreted by one or more of the parties involved. This causes unnecessary confusion and counter productivity.

In fact, a message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same way.
By successfully getting your message across, you convey your thoughts and ideas effectively. When not successful, the thoughts and ideas that you convey do not necessarily reflect your own, causing a communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of your goals – both personally and professionally.

In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with more than 50,000 employees, communication skills were cited as the single more important decisive factor in choosing managers. The survey, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh’s Katz Business School, points out that communication skills, including written and oral presentations, as well as an ability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success.

In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals continue to struggle with this, unable to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively – whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly impossible for them to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career progression.

Getting your message across is paramount to progressing. To do this, you must understand what your message is, what audience you are sending it to, and how it will be perceived. You must also weigh-in the circumstances surrounding your communications, such as situational and cultural context.

Communications Skills - The Importance of Removing Barriers:

Communication barriers can pop-up at every stage of the communication process (which consists of sender, message, channel, receiver, feedback and context .

To be an effective communicator and to get your point across without misunderstanding and confusion, your goal should be to lessen the frequency of these barriers at each stage of this process with clear, concise, accurate, well-planned communications. We follow the process through below:

To establish yourself as an effective communicator, you must first establish credibility. In the business arena, this involves displaying knowledge of the subject, the audience and the context in which the message is delivered.

You must also know your audience (individuals or groups to which you are delivering your message). Failure to understand who you are communicating to will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood.

Next, consider the message itself. Written, oral and nonverbal communications are effected by the sender’s tone, method of organization, validity of the argument, what is communicated and what is left out, as well as your individual style of communicating. Messages also have intellectual and emotional components, with intellect allowing us the ability to reason and emotion allowing us to present motivational appeals, ultimately changing minds and actions.

Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal including face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports.

These messages are delivered to an audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your message prompts from this audience. Keep in mind, your audience also enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message, acting appropriately.

Your audience will provide you with feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. Pay close attention to this feedback as it is crucial to ensuring the audience understood your message.

The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).

Removing Barriers At All These Stages
To deliver your messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down the barriers that exist in each of these stages of the communication process.

Let’s begin with the message itself. If your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message.

Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information too fast. When in doubt here, less is oftentimes more. It is best to be mindful of the demands on other people’s time, especially in today’s ultra-busy society.

Once you understand this, you need to work to understand your audience’s culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and cultures within your own organization, in this country and even abroad.

Writing Skills

Before You Write It Down, Know This

Many people are intimidated by writing. Even so, there are times when writing is the best way to communicate, and oftentimes the only way to get your message across.

Write With Necessary Caution...

When writing, be mindful of the fact that once something is in written form, it cannot be taken back. Communicating through words can be more concrete than verbal communications, with less room for error and even less room for mistakes. This presents written communicators with new challenges, including spelling, grammar, punctuation, even writing style and actual wording.
Thankfully, today’s technology makes memo, letter and proposal writing much easier by providing reliable tools that check and even correct misspelled words and incorrect grammar use. Unfortunately, these tools are not fail proof and will require your support, making your knowledge in this area important.

The Importance of "Style"...

Some of the most basic tips to remember when writing include:
• Avoid the use of slang words
• Try not to use abbreviations (unless appropriately defined)
• Steer away from the use of symbols (such as ampersands [&])
• Clichés should be avoided, or at the very least, used with caution
• Brackets are used to play down words or phrases
• Dashes are generally used for emphasis
• Great care should ALWAYS be taken to spell the names of people and companies correctly
• Numbers should be expressed as words when the number is less than 10 or is used to start a sentence (example: Ten years ago, my brother and I…). The number 10, or anything greater than 10, should be expressed as a figure (example: My brother has 13 Matchbox cars.)
• Quotation marks should be placed around any directly quoted speech or text and around titles of publications.
• Keep sentences short

While the above tips cover the most common mistakes made when writing letters, memos and reports, they in no way cover everything you need to know to ensure your written communications are accurate and understood.

While this takes some practice, there are many sources available to assist with writing style, including “The Elements of Style”, by Strunk and White. One glance in any newsroom or on the desk of even the most accomplished writers and you are sure to find this small, easy-to-read, easy-to-understand, no-nonsense guide to writing. It is clear, concise and perhaps the best book of its kind. If you plan on writing a great deal of letters or even proposals, it is strongly recommended that you pick up this nifty guide, which by the way, will fit in your shirt pocket.

Letter Writing Hints...

When writing letters, it is best to address the letter to an individual. And, when beginning the letter with a personal name, be sure to end it with an appropriate closing, such as ‘Sincerely yours’. If you cannot obtain an individual’s name, consider ending it with a more generic (less personal) closing, such as ‘With kindest regards’.

For normal business letters, your letter should start with an overall summary, showing in the first paragraph why the letter is relevant to the reader. It’s not a good practice to make the reader go past the first paragraph to find out why the letter was sent to them.

The body of the letter needs to explain the reason for the correspondence, including any relevant background and current information. Make sure the information flows logically, ensuring you are making your points effectively.

The closing of the letter is the final impression you leave with the reader. End with an action point, such as ‘I will call you later this week to discuss this further’.

The Importance of Careful Proofing

Perhaps the most important thing to remember when writing a letter is to check it thoroughly when it is completed. Even when you think it is exactly what you want, read it one more time. This “unwritten” rule holds true for everything you write – memos, letters, proposals, etc.

Use both the grammar and spell check on your computer, paying very, very close attention to every word highlighted. Do not place total faith on your computer here. Instead, you should have both a printed dictionary and thesaurus nearby to double-check everything your computers editing tools highlight, as these tools are certainly not always reliable, for a variety of reasons.

When checking your written communications make sure the document is clear and concise. Is there anything in the written communication that could be misinterpreted? Does it raise unanswered questions or fail to make the point you need to get across?

Can you cut down on the number of words used? For instance, don’t use 20 words when you can use 10. While you do not want to be curt or abrupt, you do not want to waste the reader’s time with unnecessary words or phrases.

Is your written communication well organized? Does each idea proceed logically to the next? Make sure your written communications are easy to read and contain the necessary information, using facts where needed and avoiding information that is not relevant. Again, outline the course of action you expect, such as a return call or visit.

Close appropriately, making sure to include your contact information. While this may seem obvious, it is sometimes overlooked and can make your written communications look amateurish. This can diminish your chances of meeting your written communication’s goals.

Active Listening

Hear What People are Really Saying

by Kellie Fowler

It is obvious to say that if you have poor interpersonal communications skills (which include active listening), your productivity will suffer simply because you do not have the tools needed to influence, persuade and negotiate – all necessary for workplace success. Lines of communications must be open between people who rely on one another to get work done.

Considering this, you must be able to listen attentively if you are to perform to expectations, avoid conflicts and misunderstandings, and to succeed - in any arena. Following are a few short tips to help you enhance your communications skills and to ensure you are an active listener:

1. Start by Understanding Your Own Communication Style
Good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness. Understanding your personal style of communicating will go a long way toward helping you to create good and lasting impressions on others. By becoming more aware of how others perceive you, you can adapt more readily to their styles of communicating. This does not mean you have to be a chameleon, changing with every personality you meet. Instead, you can make another person more comfortable with you by selecting and emphasizing certain behaviors that fit within your personality and resonate with another. In doing this, you will prepare yourself to become an active listener.

2. Be an Active Listener
People speak at 100 to 175 words per minute (WPM), but they can listen intelligently at 600 to 800 words per minute. Since only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easy to go into mind drift - thinking about other things while listening to someone. The cure for this is active listening - which involves listening with a purpose. It may be to gain information, obtain directions, understand others, solve problems, share interest, see how another person feels, show support, etc.

If you're finding it particularly difficult to concentrate on what someone is saying, try repeating their words mentally as they say it - this will reinforce their message and help you control mind drift.

3. Use Nonverbal Communication
Use nonverbal behaviors to raise the channel of interpersonal communication. Nonverbal communication is facial expressions like smiles, gestures, eye contact, and even your posture. This shows the person you are communicating with that you are indeed listening actively and will prompt further communications while keeping costly, time-consuming misunderstandings at a minimum.

4. Give Feedback
Remember that what someone says and what we hear can be amazingly different! Our personal filters, assumptions, judgments, and beliefs can distort what we hear. Repeat back or summarize to ensure that you understand. Restate what you think you heard and ask, "Have I understood you correctly?" If you find yourself responding emotionally to what someone said, say so, and ask for more information: "I may not be understanding you correctly, and I find myself taking what you said personally. What I thought you just said is XXX; is that what you meant?"

Feedback is a verbal communications means used to clearly demonstrate you are actively listening and to confirm the communications between you and others. Obviously, this serves to further ensure the communications are understood and is a great tool to use to verify everything you heard while actively listening.


كل عام وانتم بخير

To everyone who views our blog we would like to say:

Happy Eid Fiter كل عام وانتم بخير

Using Games in Teaching English

The Court

The class is divided into two teams. The teacher says " the court is the living room ". One team starts by saying an object that can be found in the " court ", the living room in this example. The opposing team answers with another object that can be found in the " court ". The game goes on until one object is repeated or a team can not say another object to answer back. Then one point is given to the winning team. The teacher then changes the " court " and another set " is played. The team that wins three out of five sets is the winner.

Julio Valladares
Richmond Publishing Consultant - Peru

Clap the Number

Materials: none.

Sit the students in a big circle around the class but leave some random seats free. Tell the students that they are going to count but that every 5th student must not say the number but clap her/ his hands. If a student forgets to clap ( saying the number instead ), says a wrong number or takes too long to count, s/he is placed in another seat while the counting continues, the student is not taken out of the game. Alternatively, the teacher may decide to ask every 3 rd, 7 th, Nth student to clap her/ his hand.

Cesar Klauer


Materials: Chalk or markers to write on board.

The class is divided into two teams. A line is drawn on the board to make two equal areas. Each team sends a representative to the board. The teacher says a word which the team representatives write from top to bottom of their corresponding board areas. Then, with each single letter of the word, they write another word. Proper nouns and the original teacher´s word are not permitted. The student who finishes first shouts " Ready!" so that the other student stops writing.This student should be the winner, provided that all the words he/she wrote are correct and will award one point to his team.The members of the team who are sitting must not say what words to write to their representative. The game finishes when all the team members have had a go at the board. The team with more points wins.

Battleship 2

The game is played on a grid similar to a game of battleship. The size of the grid depends on the number of students and the time limits of the class. Basically the students pick a grid reference, say " A 1" and then you pick the task. There can be many tasks, you have them roll a dice and then they need to think of that many words for a letter of your choice. Then they recieve that many points, ie, what ever they rolled. You can vary it at will if you pretend you are working of a prepared plan, sometimes I have them name ten body parts, or five things from the kitchen, bathroom, etc. Thus it can be modified to suit anything you have been working on. To add a bit of spice I also have a bomb every now and then that I throw in when 1 team is running away with it, they just miss a turn with the sound and drawing of a bomb. The kids love this bit and are always wary of the bomb. I also have a missle, the drawing of a missle which can be used to blow up one of the oppositions scores. You can use all these but make sure you pretend to be working of a plan as if the kids pick up that you are making them up to suit the game they go nuts. The winner of the game is the team with the most points. Make sure you have enough time to finish as the students get pretty angry if squares are left on the board
.Good luck


Good for the end of the lesson for practising numbers (or general vocab.).
Make a different grid of sixteen random numbers for each class member. Write a number list for yourself.
Explain that the students must mark off the numbers in their grids as you call them out, and that if they finish the grid, shout
Call out the list:
When a student shouts "BINGO", ask them to read out their numbers, and check them off on your list.
The winner gets a pencil sharpener or rubber, which they will treasure.
Draw vocabulary objects in the grids (eg. cabbage, tall man, short man, computer etc.), then call them out or (for artists) write in the grids and draw them on the board.

Tic Tac Toe 4

Alternative Tic Tac Toe (for paper or whiteboard)
Draw the usual # but instead of using a pen, use only 3 items per student (instead of the normal 4). Three blue paper pieces, 3 red etc (use tape on the back for white board). The game does not end until there is a winner. In otherwords, the children keep moving the pieces in turn until there is a winner.
If you want to use vocabulary lists, they need to take a new word each time.

The Lion Game

Materials: 4 lions, each a different colour, an explorer, a jeep, two special dice and a playing area. I usually draw a grid on my whiteboard to make the playing area. By varying the size of the grid I can control the game length.
Set up: place one lion in each corner of the playing area. Place the jeep and the explorer anywhere, preferably as far apart as possible.
Method of play: give a student a simple task. If the student succeeds give the student the 'explorer' dice. If the student makes a mistake give the student the 'lion dice'. The explorer can escape the lions by getting to the jeep and then driving the jeep off the playing area. The lions always move towards the explorer. If a lion lands on the explorer, the explorer is eaten. If the jeep is rolled move it away from the explorer. When the explorer has reached the jeep only move the explorer when the jeep is rolled (i.e. ignore explorer rolls).
Comments: The above description assumes that the students want to save the explorer. One alternative is to let the students choose which dice to throw which may create competition if some students want to save the explorer and others want to get the explorer eaten. Another possibility is to ask the students where a playing piece should be moved. With very young students it is possible to play the game without them realising that there are actually two dice.

Pass the hat!

You will need two objects, a bag and a hat and some music (lively is better). Fill the bag with questions, requests whatever you may be reviewing at the moment. Start the hat at one side of the room and the bag at the other. Have the students pass the bag and hat while listening to music. When the music stops, the students who are holding the bag and the cap must stand up. The person with the bag must ask a question to the person with the hat. Keep going alternating the time between stopping the music. The students get really excited with this activity, it is really a lot of fun!
HINT: Use a funny hat and when explaining the game put the hat on the students heads, they really get a kick out of it!

Word Games

Put any word known to the kids on the board, eg: lemon. Circle the "n" and get them to make a word beginning with that letter. Then take the last letter of that word, and repeat the process. This can be done in teams, or just getting kids to shout out words at random. They may not repeat a word.
Another word game: put a simple word on the board, eg. big. They have to make a new word, by changing only one letter at a time. EG: big, bag, rag, etc. This also works well in teams, especially if you set a time limit and the winning team is the one who makes the most words, no repeats allowed, of course.



If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; there is where they should be. Now put foundations under them.
-Henry David Thoreau-

They aren't aliens. They're human beings--people in small bodies, people with short attention spans, people who think in concrete rather than abstract terms, but people, nonetheless. They are also impressionable people. Your young pupils will reflect your attitude toward the class just as clearly as a thermometer reflects the temperature of the classroom. If you are tense, your students will be as well. Behavioral problems will ensue. Conflicts will develop between students. Valuable class time will be wasted. And everyone involved will leave exhausted and frustrated. A relaxed teacher, however, contributes significantly to warm, supportive classroom atmosphere. How does a teacher relax?

•Prepare thoroughly.

If you aren't sure what you are doing when you walk into the classroom, you will be stressed--and with good cause. A detailed lesson plan, however, frees you from the nagging question, "Now what do I do?" A thorough lesson plan includes the following:
•objectives--What do you want the students to learn?
•instructional procedures--How are you going to help students learn what you want them to learn?
•evaluation--How will you know whether students have learned what you wanted them to learn?
•materials--What materials will you need to fulfill your instructional procedures?
•assignment--What follow-up task (if any) will you expect students to complete on their own?

•Plan for potential problems.

Problems happen. Students finish in fifteen minutes the project for which you allotted thirty minutes. Little Youn-mi's complaints of "Teacher, I don't feel good" turn to cries of "Teacher, Youn-mi just got sick!!!" Students forget pencils, erasers, crayons, and even textbooks. Other teachers call in sick, and you find yourself with a combined class. The power goes out. Having contingency plans for foreseeable emergencies can significantly reduce your stress when the crisis strikes.
•Try to include at least one more activity than you think you'll have time for on each lesson plan.

•Keep a card file of five and ten minute "filler" activities.
•Keep a folder of photocopied review or practice worksheets that you can grab and distribute at a moment's notice. (Handwriting and reading comprehension worksheets, if not overused, can be great "backup" activities.)
•Have extra pencils, crayons, and erasers readily available.
•Develop a contingency plan for missing textbooks. (Will the student be able to share a book with a classmate? Do you have an extra copy you may loan out? Can you step out of the classroom long enough to photocopy a work page? Is the student expected to sit quietly through class, then complete the assignment at home? etc.)
•Know the school's policy regarding student illnesses. (Do you send Youn-mi to the office at first complaint? Do you keep her in class, but tell her she can put her head down on the desk and rest? Are you supposed to ignore complaints and teach until disaster strikes?)
•Know who to contact in case of an emergency and where to find cleaning supplies.
•Always have a large group activity on file that you can pull if you end up with a combined class. Possibilities include craft projects, creative writing tasks, outdoor games, role-playing exercises, and English videos for which you have written comprehension and discussion questions.

•Get enough rest.

Split shifts in particular take their toll. Some people need eight hours of sleep a night. Others can function on six. Still others require nine or ten. Figure out how much rest your body needs, then plan your schedule accordingly. While it may be tempting to go out on the town with all the other teachers when classes end at 11:00 pm, it's not wise to make a habit of nights on the town if you have to be back in the classroom at 5:30 or 6:00 the next morning. Not only are you in less than ideal condition in the classroom, but you are also jeopardizing your health. Tired teachers tend to be grouchy teachers. Tired teachers tend to be ineffective teachers. And tired teachers tend to become sick teachers.

•Teach students, not the textbook.

Teachers bent on teaching the textbook, on completing every language exercise and/or covering every page in the workbook, within an inflexible time frame get frustrated. Students don't always learn according to schedule. Some students learn English rapidly and will be bored to tears if the teacher insists on prolonging a unit until every related activity has been completed. Others struggle to learn English and will be incredibly frustrated and discouraged if the teacher rushes through one unit to get to the next one "on schedule." Remember that the textbook is a tool, a means to an end, but not the end itself. Use the textbook; use the scope and sequence chart; use the teacher's manual; use any other related materials. But teach the students. If the scope and sequence chart says students should master a skill in one week, but most of your students are struggling with the task, don't be afraid to take a few more days. If the workbook includes five pages of exercises related to a certain grammatical skill, but the majority of your students evidence clear mastery of the skill on the first page, don't feel like you "have" to do the other four. Remember, whether your students learn and love learning is far more important than whether they finish the text precisely on schedule or complete every exercise mentioned in the teacher's guide.