2007-04-30

Questions on King Lear



Nobility Ranks مراتب النبلاء
Duke and duchess
Marquess (or marquis) and marchioness
Earl and countess
Viscount and viscountess
Baron and baroness



King Lear


Summary


LEAR, THE ELDERLY KING الملك العجوز OF BRITAIN, decides to step downيتنازل from the throne العرش and divide his kingdom evenly بالتساوي among his three daughters. First, however, he puts his daughters through a test اختبار , asking each to tell him how much she loves him. Goneril and Regan, Lear’s older daughters, give their father flattering answers إجابات متملقة . But Cordelia, Lear’s youngest and favourite daughter, remains silent, saying that she has no words to describe how much she loves her father. Lear flies into a rage and disowns يتبرأ من Cordelia. The king of France, who has loved Cordelia, says that he still wants to marry her even without her land, and she accompanies himترافقه to France without her father’s blessingدون مباركة أبيها .
Lear quickly learns that he made a bad decision قرار خاطئ . Goneril and Regan swiftly بسرعة begin to undermine يقوض the little authority السلطة that Lear still holds يمسكها . Unable to believe that his beloved daughters are betraying يخون him, Lear slowly goes insane مجنون . He flees يفر من his daughters’ houses to wander يطوف on a heath ارض بور during a great thunderstorm عاصفة رعدية , accompanied by مصحوبا من his Fool المهرج and by Kent, a loyal nobleman النبيل المخلص in disguise متنكرا .
Meanwhile في تلك الأثناء , an elderly nobleman نبيل عجوز named Gloucester also experiences يواجه family problems. His illegitimate son ابنه غير الشرعي , Edmund, tricks يخدعه him into believing that his legitimate son ابنه الشرعي , Edgar, is trying to kill him. Fleeing فارا من the manhunt المطاردة that his father has set for him جهزها له , Edgar disguises يتنكر himself as a crazy beggar متسول مجنون and calls himself “Poor Tom.” Like Lear, he heads out ينطلق إلى onto the heath الأرض البور When the loyal المخلص Gloucester realizes يدرك that Lear’s daughters have turned against their father انقلبت ضد , he decides to help Lear in spite of the danger رغم الخطر . Regan and her husband, Cornwall, discover يكشفانه him helping Lear, accuse يتهمانه him of treason الخيانة العظمى , blind يعميانه him, and turn him out يطردانه to wander يتجول the countryside الأرياف . He ends up ينتهي being led مقودا من by his disguised son ابنه المتنكر , Edgar, toward نحو the city of Dover, where Lear has also been brought.
In Dover, a French army الجيش الفرنسي lands يحط as part of an invasion غزو led by Cordelia قادته كورديليا in an effort في محاولة to save her father. Edmund apparently بوضوح becomes romantically entangled متورط عاطفيا with both Goneril and Regan, whose husband, Albany, is increasingly sympathetic متعاطف بازدياد to Lear’s cause قضية . Goneril and Edmund conspire يتآمران to kill Albany.
The despairing اليائس Gloucester tries to commit suicide ينتحر , but Edgar saves him by leading him off an imaginary غير حقيقية cliff منحدر . Meanwhile, the English troops القوات reach Dover, and the English, ledيقودها by Edmund, defeat تهزم the Cordelia-led الذي تقوده French. Lear and Cordelia are capturedقبض عليهما . Edgar duels يتبارز with and kills Edmund; we learn of the death of Gloucester; Goneril poisons تسمم Regan out of jealousy بدافع الغيرة over Edmund على إدموند and then kills herself when her treachery خيانتها is revealed كشفت to Albany; Edmund’s betrayal خيانة of Cordelia leads to her سببت لها needless غير ضروري execution إعداما in prison في السجن ; and Lear finally dies out of grief الحزن at Cordelia’s passing موت . Albany, Edgar, and the elderly Kent are left to take care of the country under a cloud of sorrow حزن and regret وأسى .

Act 1
1.Who is Lear?
He is the King of Britain.
1. من هو لير ؟
هو ملك بريطانيا.
2.Who are his three daughters?
They are Goneril, Regan and Cordelia.
2. من بناته الثلاث؟
هن غونيرل وريغان وكورديليا.
3.Who is Goneril married to?
She is married to the Duke of Albany.
3. من تزوج من غونيرل؟
تزوجها دوق الباني.
4.Who is Regan married to?
She is married to the Duke of Cornwall.
4. من تزوج من ريغان؟
تزوجها دوق كاورنوول.
5.Who wants to marry Cordelia?
The king of France and the Duke of Burgundy want to marry her.
5. من أراد الزواج من كورديليا؟
كل من ملك فرنسا ودوق بيرغندي أراد الزواج منها.
6.Why does King Lear decide to give the country to his three daughters?
He is old and feels tired.
6. لماذا قرر الملك لير إعطاء المملكة لبناته الثلاث؟
لأنه كبير ويشعر بالتعب.
7.Who is going to rule instead of him?
His daughters and their husbands.
7. من سيحكم بدلا منه؟
بناته وأزواجهن.
8.What is he going to do after giving up his kingdom?
He will stay with each daughter in turn for a month with 100 knights to protect him.
8. ماذا سيفعل عقب التخلي عن مملكته؟
سيمكث عند كل واحدة من بناته شهرا بصحبة 100 فارس لحمايته.
9.How much does Goneril say she loves her father?
She says she loves him very much and as much as life itself.
9. إلى أي درجة قالت غونيرل أنها تحب أباها؟
تحبه كثيرا بنفس قدر الحياة.
10.How does Lear react to Goneril's speech?
He gets very happy and gives her and her husband a third of his kingdom.
10. ماذا كان رد فعل لير تجاه ما قالته غونيرل؟
فرح كثيرا وأعطاها وزوجها ثلث مملكته.
11.How much does Regan say she loves her father?
She says she loves him more than Goneril does.
11. إلى أي درجة قالت ريغان إنها تحب أباها؟
إنها تحبه أكثر مما تحبه أختها غونيرل.
12.How does Lear react to Regan's speech?
He gets very pleased and gives her and her husband another third of his kingdom.
12. ماذا كان رد فعل لير تجاه ما قالته ريغان؟
فرح كثيرا وأعطاها وزوجها ثلثا آخر من مملكته.
13.How much does Cordelia say she loves her father?
She says she loves him as much as a daughter loves her father no more no less.
13. إلى أي درجة قالت كورديليا إنها تحب أباها؟
إنها تحبه كما تحب أي ابنة أباها لا أكثر ولا اقل..
14.Why does Cordelia say so?
She doesn’t want to compete with her sisters in boasting. She knows that they don’t love him as much as they pretend.
14. لماذا قالت كورديليا ما قالته؟
لم ترد أن تنافس أختيها التبجح وتعرف تماما أنهما لا تحبانه تماما كما ادعتا.
15.Why is Lear shocked by Cordelia's answer?
She is his youngest and favourite daughter. He is sure she would say she loves him more than her both sisters.
15. لماذا صعق لير من رد كورديليا؟
لأنها أفضل واصغر بناته لقد كان واثقا من أنها ستقول بأنها تحبه أكثر من أختيها.
16.How does Lear react to Cordelia's speech?
He gets very angry and says that she is no longer his daughter. He gives her share to her sisters. 16. ماذا كان رد فعل لير تجاه ما قالته كورديليا؟
استشاط غضبا وقال إنها لم تعد ابنته وأعطى نصيبها لأختيها.
17.Do Lear advisers agree with what he does?
No, they don’t.
17. هل وافق مستشارو لير على ما فعل؟
كلا.
18.Who is the advisor who talked to the king?
The Earl of Kent. He asked the king to think again as he is wrong.
18. من هو المستشار الذي تحدث للملك؟
ايرل مقاطعة كنت وقد طلب من الملك أن يعيد التفكير لأنه مخطئ.
19.What does Lear do to Kent?
He sends him away.
19. ماذا فعل لير بايرل كنت؟
طرده خارج البلد.
20.Who agrees to marry Cordelia after losing everything?
King of France.
20. من قبل الزواج من كورديليا بعد خسارتها كل شيء؟
ملك فرنسا.
21.Why does King of France agree to marry Cordelia?
He thinks she is honest and true and he loves her for that.
21. لم وافق ملك فرنسا على الزواج من كورديليا؟
لأنه يعتقد أنها صادقة وقد أحبها لذلك.
22.Why does Duke of Burgundy refuse to marry Cordelia?
She has got nothing now.
22. لم رفض دوق بيرغندي الزواج من كورديليا؟
لأنها لم تعد تملك شيئا.
23.What does Cordelia ask her sisters to do before she leaves?
She asks them to take care of their father.
23. ماذا طلبت كورديليا من أختيها قبل رحيلها؟
طلبت منهما الاعتناء بابيهم.
24.What does Lear's cruel treatment of Cordelia mean to her sisters?
It means that there is something wrong with Lear's mind and that he might turn against them in the future.
24. ماذا عنت معاملة لير القاسية نحو كورديليا لأختيها؟
أن هناك خللا في عقل لير وانه قد ينقلب نحوهما مستقبلا.
25.Who is Edmund?
Edmund is the illegitimate son of Earl of Gloucester.
25 من هو إدموند؟
هو الابن غير الشرعي لايرل غلوستر.
26.Who is Edgar?
Edgar is the legitimate son of Earl of Gloucester.
26. من هو إدغار؟
هو الابن الشرعي لايرل غلوستر.
27.What is Edmund planning?
He is planning to take Edgar's place.
27. ماذا يخطط إدموند؟
أن يحل محل إدغار.
28.What does Edmund do to get rid of Edgar?
He shows his father a false letter that he said was written by Edgar, asking Edmund to help him kill their father for the share of everything he has. He also asks Edgar to hide from their father as he is angry at him.
28. ماذا فعل إدموند للتخلص من إدغار؟
اطلع والده على رسالة مزورة ادعى أن إدغار كتبها ويطلب منه أن يساعده في قتل والدهم مقابل تقاسم ثروته.
وقد طلب من إدغار أيضا أن يختبئ من والدهم لأنه غاضب منه.
29.Does the father believe Edmund?
Yes, he does.
29. هل صدق الأب إدغار؟
نعم
30.Why does Edmund do so?
He wants to get rid of his brother and takes everything for himself.
30. لم فعل إدموند ذلك؟
لأنه أراد التخلص من أخيه وان يأخذ كل شيء لنفسه.
31.What happens at Goneril's after two weeks of Lear's stay?
Goneril's servants behave rudely with Lear's men and quarrel with them.
31. ماذا حصل في قصر غونيرل بعد أسبوعين من مكوث لير؟
تصرف خدمها بسوء مع رجال لير وتشاجروا معهم.
32.How does Goneril treat her father?
She is unkind to him about the behaviour of his men.
32. كيف تعاملت غونيرل مع أبيها؟
لم تكن لطيفة معه بخصوص مسلكيات رجاله.
33.What is Goneril's plan?
It is to dismiss 50 of her father's men.
33. ماذا كانت خطة غونيرل؟
أن تسرح 50 من رجال أبيها.
34.How does Kent come back as?
He comes disguised as a poor man.
34. على أية هيئة عاد كنت؟
متنكرا كرجل فقير.
35.What does Kent want to do?
He wants to be close to Lear and he becomes his servant.
35. ماذا أراد كنت أن يفعل؟
أن يكون قريبا من لير ويصب
36.How do you show that Kent loves Lear?
Kent hits Oswald, Goneril's servant, for speaking disrespectfully to the king.
36. كيف تبين أن كنت يحب لير؟
لقد ضرب أوزولد خادم غونيرل لأنه تجاوز حدود الأدب مع لير.
37.What does Lear do to Goneril?
He curses her wishing that she had a child who would torment her.
37. ماذا فعل لير مع غونيرل؟
قام بلعنها وتمنى أن تنجب ولدا يقوم بتعذيبها.
►Fill in the spaces in the following:
•King Lear has……..daughters. The oldest is……… and is married to…………….. The middle is……….. and is married to…………. The youngest and favourite is…………….
•Lear decides to keep………….knights to……….. him and he will stay for a……… at each daughter in turn. Lear asked his daughters to say how much they ……. him in order to share the country between them.
•Kent was Lear's………… and he told him that he was……….. with Cordelia but Lear became………. and ………. Kent away.
•Goneril was………to her father. She planned to………….50 of his………….Lear ………….Goneril and wished she had a………..who would………….her.
•Kent was faithful to Lear as he came back disguised as a……….man and worked as Lear's…………

►Decide whether the following are TRUE or FALSE
1.The fool made a joke that Kent was the fool.
2.Edmund was Gloucester's legitimate son.
3.Edgar planned to kill his father.
4.Oswald was Goneril's servant.
5.The Duke of burgundy changed his mind of marrying Cordelia.
6.Lear was mistaken to give his power to his daughters.
7.Goneril and Regan were honest in their love to their father.
8.Kent disguised as a fool.
9.Goneril planned to dismiss 50 of her father's men.
10.King of France is clever and honest.


►Circle the correct answer:
1.Lear wanted to keep…….knights.
a. 100 b. 15 c. 50
2.Cordelia was Lear's………….. daughter.
a. Most beautiful b. Most dishonest c. favourite
3.Regan, Lear’s middle daughter, was married to
a. The Duke of Burgundy b. The Duke of Burgundy c. The Duke of Albany
4.Edmund tells his father that…………….
a. Edgar loves him b. Edgar ran away c. Edgar plots to kill him
5.As an illegitimate son, Edmund gets:
a. Nothing according to British law. b. Half of his father's fortune. c. All of his father's fortune.

Act 2
1.What does Edmund tell Edgar about his hiding place?
He tells him that their father knows the place and he has to run away so as not to be killed. 1. ماذا اخبر إدموند أخاه إدغار عن مكان اختبائه؟
قال له إن أباه يعرف المكان وان عليه الهرب حتى لا يقتله أبوه.
2.What does Edgar do?
He believes his brother and disguises pretending to be a mad homeless person. 2. ماذا فعل إدغار؟
صدق أخاه وتنكر كرجل مجنون مشرد.
3.What does Edmund do to continue his plot?
He cuts his arm with his sword and tells his father that Edgar did so as he refused to help him kill their father. 3. ماذا فعل إدموند لإكمال مؤامرته؟
جرح ذراعه بسيفه واخبر أباه أن إدغار فعل ذلك لأنه رفض مساعدته في قتل أبيهم.
4.How does Regan feel hearing Edgar's story?
She blames him doing so to his father. 4. ماذا كان شعور ريغان لسماعها قصة إدغار؟
لامت عليه أن يفعل ذلك مع أبيه.
5.How does Gloucester feel?
He feels very angry and sad. 5. ماذا كان شعور غلوستر؟
كان حزينا جدا وغاضبا.
6.What does Lear's letter tell Regan?
It tells her to get ready to receive him and his men. 6 ماذا كانت فحوى رسالة لير لابنته ريغان؟
تطلب منها الاستعداد لاستقباله ورجاله.
7.What does Goneril's letter tell Regan?
It complains about their father and warns Regan about Lear's noisy and expensive men.
7. ماذا كانت فحوى رسالة غونيرل لأختها ريغان؟
اشتكت من أبيهن وحذرت ريغان من رجال أبيهن المزعجين والمكلفين.
8.Why does Kent hit Oswald?
Oswald talks rudely about the king.
8. لماذا ضرب كنت أوزولد؟
لأنه تحدث بقلة أدب عن الملك.
9.What do Regan and her husband do to Kent?
They send him to prison.
9. ماذا فعلت ريغان وزوجها مع كنت؟
قاما بسجنه.
10.Why is Regan's act extremely disrespectful?
Because Kent is the King's messenger.
10. لماذا اعتبر تصرف ريغان مخزيا جدا؟
لان كنت هو رسول الملك.
11.What other shameful act does Regan do to her father?
She refuses to see him pretending that she is too tired.
11. أي فعل مخز آخر فعلته ريغان مع أبيها؟
رفضت مقابلته مدعية بأنها متعبة جدا.
12.What does Lear find out when he arrives at Regan's?
He finds that Kent is in prison and that Goneril has come to Regan.
12. ماذا اكتشف لير عندما وصل قصر ريغان؟
وجد أن كنت أودع السجن وان غونيرل حضرت عند ريغان.
13.Why does Goneril come?
She comes to tell her sister not to look after Lear.
13. لماذا قدمت غونيرل؟
جاءت لتخبر ريغان ألا تعتني بالملك لير.
14.What does Regan tell Lear after meeting Goneril?
She tells him to go with Goneril and ask for her forgiveness. She also tells him to send away fifty of his men.
14. ماذا أخبرت ريغان والدها لير بعد لقائها غونيرل؟
طلبت منه الذهاب مع غونيرل وان يطلب الصفح منها. وطلبت منه أيضا أن يصرف 50 من رجاله.
15.What do Regan and Goneril think of their father?
They think that he is angry and thinks too much of himself.
15. ماذا ظنت ريغان و غونيرل بابيهما؟
انه غاضب ويفكر كثيرا بنفسه.
16.What does Lear remind Regan of?
He reminds her that he gave her half of all his land. 16. ماذا ذكر لير ابنته ريغان؟
انه منحها نصف مملكته.
17.What does Lear ask Regan?
He asks her to let him stay with all his men.
17. ماذا طلب لير من ريغان؟
أن يبقى مع جميع رجاله.
18.How many men does Regan accept?
She accepts twenty five.
18. كم من الرجال وافقت ريغان على إبقائهم؟
وافقت على إبقاء 25 رجلا.
19.How many men does Lear think Goneril would accept?
He thinks she would accept fifty.
19. كم رجلا اعتقد لير أن غونيرل ستسمح له بإبقائهم؟
اعتقد أنها ستسمح بخمسين رجلا.
20.How many men do the daughters really accept?
They accept no one. 20. كم رجلا وافقت الأختان على إبقائهم في الواقع؟
لم تريدا أيا منهم.
21.What does the king finally realize?
He finally realizes that giving away everything had been a terrible mistake and he has lost all his power. He realizes also that the two daughters feel no love or kindness for him.
21. ماذا أدرك الملك أخيرا؟
أن التخلي عن كل شيء هو خطا جسيم وانه فقد كامل نفوذه وان ابنتيه لا تحبانه أو تظهران نحوه أية مشاعر طيبة.
22.What does Lear do?
He goes out into the storm alone except for Kent and the fool.
22. ماذا فعل لير؟
غادر خارجا في العاصفة يصاحبه كنت والمهرج.
23.Whom do Regan and Goneril blame for their father's suffering?
They blame their father himself.
23. من تلوم غونيرل وريغان على معاناة أبيهما؟
تلومان أبيهما وحده.


►Decide which words you can use to describe: Lear, Regan, Goneril, Kent, Oswald, Edmund, Edgar, and Gloucester.
ungrateful - sad – selfish – angry – badly advised – cruel – dishonest – mistaken – shocking – shocked- suffering – wrong – disrespectful- silly – stupid – cunning – brave – honest – faithful – sorry – regretting – simple – passionate

Lear:……………………………………………………………………………………………..…

Regan: ………………………………………………………………………………………….…

Goneril: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Kent: ……………………………………………………………………………………………....

Oswald: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Edmund: ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Edgar: ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Gloucester: …………………………………………………………………………………………

►Fill in the following spaces
•Lear realized that he was……………. when his daughters refused to accept his………….
•Regan showed no respect to her father as she refused to…….him pretending that she was very……
•Goneril wanted her father to apologise to her for being……………..
•Edmund lied to his father about his brother……. and ….his arm by his sword to……….his father that his brother did it.
•Edgar ………….what Edmund said and ……away. He ………..as a…………….person.
•After all what they did, the daughters still………their father.
•Lear left out with……………and……….leaving all his men.

►Decide whether the following are TRUE or FALSE
1.Edgar believed all that Edmund said.
2.Regan ordered Kent to be imprisoned.
3.Gloucester was happy to see what happened to Lear.
4.Gloucester believed all that Edmund said.
5.Oswald hit Kent at Regan's palace.
6.Regan wanted her father to keep 25 men if he wanted to stay with her.
7.Lear asked to meet Regan but she refused.
8.Edmund was injured after having a fight with Edgar.
9.Goneril followed Lear to Regan's house.
10.Lear did not realize that he was wrong.

►Circle the correct answer
1.The one who was hiding from his father was:
a. Edgar b. Edmund c. Gloucester
2.Oswald was:
a. Regan's servant b. Lear's servant c. Goneril's servant
3.Kent was:
a. Regan's servant b. Lear's servant c. Goneril's servant
4.Lear left Regan's with:
a. fifty men b. twenty five men c. two only
5.When Lear left there was:
a. a storm b. rain c. nothing



Act 3
1.What does Kent find out?
He finds out that King of France has come to England with an army and with Cordelia.
1.ماذا اكتشف كنت؟
اكتشف أن ملك فرنسا قادم لانجلترا بجيشه ومعهم كورديليا.
2.Why does Kent send a letter to Cordelia?
He sends her a letter to explain what happened to her father.
2. لماذا أرسل كنت رسالة إلى كورديليا؟
ليخبرها ما حل بابيها.
3.What happens to Lear?
Sorrow and anger make him mad.
3. ماذا حل بالملك لير؟
الحزن والغضب افقداه عقله.
4.Why does Lear shout at the storm?
To do its worst.
4. لماذا صرخ لير على العاصفة؟
حتى تأتي بأسوأ ما عندها.
5.Where does Kent persuade Lear to take shelter?
In a small dirty hut.
5. أين اقنع كنت الملك لير بالاختباء؟
في كوخ صغير قذر.
6.What impact does living in the dirty hut have on Lear?
Lear begins to feel sorry, for the first time, for others than himself. He thinks of poor, homeless and old people.
6. ماذا كان اثر مكوث لير في الكوخ على نفسه؟
بدا يشعر بالأسى وللمرة الأولى على الآخرين وبدا يفكر في الفقراء والمشردين والعجائز.
7.Whom do they find in the hut?
They find Edgar.
7. من وجدوا في الكوخ؟
إدغار.
8.How does Edgar disguise?
He disguises as a beggar called poor Tom, pretending to be mad.
8. كيف تنكر إدغار؟
تنكر كمتسول مطلقا على نفسه اسم توم المسكين ومدعيا الجنون.
9.What does Edgar wear?
He wears nothing, covering himself with a blanket.
9. ماذا ارتدى إدغار؟
لم يرتد أيا من الملابس وغطى نفسه ببطانية.
10.What does Lear think happened to Edgar?
He thinks that Edgar gave everything to his daughters and had gone mad.
10. ماذا اعتقد لير انه قد حصل مع إدغار؟
ظن أن إدغار أعطى كل شيء لبناته وفقد عقله، تماما مثله.
11.What happens between Albany and Cornwall?
They quarrel with each other. 11. ما حصل بين الباني و كاورنوول؟
تقاتلا فيما بينهما.
12.Why is Gloucester upset?
Because Regan and Cornwall stopped him from helping Lear or even to talk to him.
12. لماذا كان غلوستر منزعجا؟
لان ريغان وكاورنوول منعاه مساعدة لير أو حتى التحدث معه.
13.What does Gloucester decide to do?
He decides to take Lear's side against Lear's daughters and their husbands.
13. ماذا قرر غلوستر أن يفعل؟
قرر أن يقف إلى جانب لير ضد بناته وأزواجهن.
14.What does Edmund decide to do?
He decides to tell Cornwall everything his father thinks of, though this might endanger his father's life.
14. ماذا قرر إدموند أن يفعل؟
قرر أن يخبر كاورنوول كل ما يدور في خلد أبيه رغم علمه أن ذلك سيعرض حياة أبيه للخطر.
15.What does Gloucester ask Lear to do when he found him?
He asks him to go with him to his castle.
15. ماذا طلب غلوستر من لير عندما وجده؟
طلب منه الذهاب معه إلى قلعته.
16.Why does Lear refuse to go with Gloucester?
He doesn’t want to leave poor Tom.
16. لماذا رفض لير الذهاب مع غلوستر؟
لم يرد أن يترك توم المسكين.
17.What do Lear, Kent, poor Tom and the fool do?
They perform a mock trial to Lear's evil daughters.
17. ماذا فعل كل من لير وكنت وتوم المسكين والمهرج؟
أدوا محاكمة هزلية لبنات لير الشريرات.
18.Who plans to kill Lear?
Regan and Cornwall.
18. من خطط لقتل لير؟
ابنته ريغان وكاورنوول.
19.Where does Gloucester advise Kent to take Lear? Why?
He advises him to take Lear to Dover. There, he would be safe with Cordelia and King of France.
19. أين نصح غلوستر كنت أن يأخذ لير؟ ولماذا؟
نصحه أن يأخذه إلى دوفر حيث سيكون بأمان هناك مع كورديليا وملك فرنسا.
20.What does Cornwall plan to do?
He plans to punish Gloucester.
20. ماذا خطط كاورنوول لفعله؟
قرر أن يعاقب غلوستر.
21.Why does Cornwall plan to punish Gloucester?
He calls him traitor.
21. لماذا قرر كاورنوول معاقبة غلوستر؟
لأنه اعتبره خائنا.
22.Why does Edmund leave after telling Cornwall everything about his father?
He doesn’t want to be blamed of not protecting his father.
22. لماذا غادر إدموند بعد إخبار كاورنوول عن أبيه؟
لم يرد أن يلام على عدم حماية أبيه.
23.How does Cornwall punish Gloucester?
He blinds his eyes.
23. كيف عاقب كاورنوول غلوستر؟
أعمى كلتا عينيه.
24.What does one of Cornwall's servants do?
He attacks Cornwall as he could not bear the Duke's cruelty.
24. ماذا فعل احد خدم كاورنوول؟
هاجم كاورنوول لأنه لم يحتمل قسوته.
25.What happens to the servant?
He is killed.
25. ماذا حصل للخادم؟
قتله كاورنوول.
26.What happens to Cornwall?
He is hurt.
26. ماذا حصل لكاورنوول؟
أصيب بجروح.
27.What does Cornwall tell Gloucester after blinding him?
He tells him that his son Edmund betrayed him and told everything about his plans.
27. ماذا اخبر كاورنوول ضحيته غلوستر بعد أن أعماه؟
اخبره أن ابنه إدموند خانه وانه هو من اخبره عن مخططاته بخصوص مساعدة لير.
28.What does Gloucester realize?
He realizes that Edmund was a liar and Edgar was innocent.
28. ماذا أدرك غلوستر؟
أن إدموند كان كاذبا وان إدغار كان بريئا.
29.What does Regan do to Gloucester?
She throws him away out of his castle into the storm.
29. ماذا فعلت ريغان مع غلوستر؟
طردته خارجا من قلعته في العاصفة.

Act 4

Book Questions / 75
1. Who might have said or thought the following ? Explain each
situation in turn ?
a) " I can't bear to see my poor father like this . How could anyone
have hurt him like this and treated him so cruelly ?"
Edgar or Cordelia .
Edgar found his father , Gloucester , blinded by Cornwall .
Later , Cordelia found her father , King Lear , driven mad by his
daughter's cruelty .
b) " Am I finally going mad or am I just confused ? How could I
have fallen so far and still be alive ?"
Gloucester .
He thought he had jumped off a cliff and should be dead . In fact ,
he had fallen only a short distance .
c) " I've got to think quickly . How am I going to stop her from
getting him now that her husband is dead ?"
Goneril .
Goneril wanted Edmund . when Regan's husband died , Goneril
was worried that Regan might get Edmund .
d)" What ? I don't believe this ! It means that that terrible woman is
trying to get my brother to kill her husband . This is really , really
bad ."
Edgar .
Edgar found a letter in which Goneril told Edmund to kill her
husband , Albany .
e) " At last ! My father ! But has he really gone completely mad ?
I'll ask my doctor to give him some medicine that may perhaps
help him ."
Cordelia .
When Cordelia found King Lear , her doctor gave him some
medicine .
2. Answer these questions.
a) Why does Gloucester decide to jump off the cliff?
Because he is so deeply unhappy at what he has done to Edgar and what he has suffered at the hands of Cornwall .
b) Why does the Duke of Albany feel that his wife Goneril is evil?
Because she has helped Regan and Cornwall to make King Lear
go mad and to blind Gloucester .
3. Complete each of the following .
a) Goneril hears that her sister's husband has died as a result of ___
his servant's attack during the blinding of Gloucester .
b) Edgar leads his father to the middle of a field and not to the high
cliffs as ___ his father wants .
c) King Lear fully expects Cordelia to be angry with him because __
he has behaved very badly towards her .
d) Goneril has written a letter to Edmund telling him to kill her
husband because ___ her husband , Albany , has turned against
her , and she wants to marry Edmund .

Additional Questions
1. Where do Edgar and Gloucester meet after the latter has been
thrown out of Regan's castle ?
They meet out on the windy heath.
2. How does Edgar treat his father then ?
He takes care of him .
3. How does Edgar introduce himself to his blinded father ?
He doesn't tell him who he is . Instead he pretends to be " poor
mad Tom " .
4. What does " poor mad Tom" remind Gloucester of ? And what
does he wish ?
He reminds him of his son Edgar . He wishes he could hold him
in his arms again .
5. What does Gloucester compare people and gods to ?
He compares people to flies and gods to boys who torment them
for fun .
6. Why could Edgar hardly speak to his father ?
Because of his sorrow at seeing his father blinded .
7. Where does Gloucester ask Edgar to take him ? Why ?
He asks him to take him to Dover in order to throw himself from
the high cliffs and end his unhappy life .
8. Does Edgar agree to take him there ?
Edgar agrees to take him not to Dover , but to the middle of a field
9. What does Gloucester do in the middle of the field ?
He jumps and falls on the ground .
10. What does Edgar do when his father falls on the ground ?
He lifts him up pretending to be a friendly stranger .
11. What does Edgar allow father to think after he has fallen ?
Edgar allows him to think that he has fallen and survived by a
miracle .
12. How does Goneril begin to treat her husband after falling in
love with Edmund ?
She begins to despise him and considers him as a weak person .
13. What is Albany's reaction towards Goneril's behavior ?
He begins to hate what Goneril , Regan , Cornwall and Edmund
have done between them .
14. " You are not worth the dust which the rude wind blows in
your face ." Who says this ? To whom is it said ? Why ?
Albany says this to his wife Goneril because he begins to hate her.
15. When has Cornwall died ?
He has died after the servant's attack during the blinding of
Gloucester .
16. Why is Goneril worried by the news of Cornwall's death ?
Because her sister Regan has become a widow and she may marry Edmund – the man she wants for herself .
17. What does Albany consider Edmund , and what does he
decide to do ?
He considers Edmund a terrible traitor , and he decides to punish him
18. Where does the King of France leave Cordelia ?
He leaves her near Dover with his army .
19. What does Kent tell Cordelia in his letter ?
He tells her about her father's fall into madness .
20. What is Lear ashamed of ?
He is ashamed of the way he has behaved towards Cordelia .
21. According to Lear , who is punished and who is not ?
The poor and powerless are always punished for their crimes while the rich and powerful do the same things but are not punished
22. What is the first sign that Lear's madness is beginning to
disappear ?
It is that when he recognizes Gloucester .
23. What has Goneril's servant Oswald been ordered to do ?
He has been ordered to find Gloucester and kill him .
24. Who prevents Oswald from killing Gloucester ? How ?
Edgar who is still in disguise fights Oswald and kills him .
25. What does Edgar find with Oswald after killing him ?
He finds a letter from Goneril to Edmund telling him to kill her
husband Albany so that he can marry her .
26. How does Cordelia feel when she sees her mad father ?
She feels very sad .
27. What does she do to him ?
She asks her doctor to give him medicine to make him well again .
28. What are Lear's and Cordelia's reactions when he wakes up?
Lear is confused and doesn't know where he is . He recognizes
Cordelia and expects her to be angry with him .
Cordelia kneels in front of him and asks for his blessing . She
makes him understand that she loves him and forgives him .
They are both very happy to be together again .

ACT 5
Book Questions / 82
2. Answer these questions .
a) Why does Goneril want Edmund to murder her husband ?
Because she can't marry Edmund while her husband is still alive .
b) Why does the Duke of Albany arrest Edmund ?
Because he wants to bring Edmund to justice for his treason .

Additional Questions
1. Does Edmund admit or deny when Regan asks him if he in love
with Goneril ?
He denies .
2. What does Edgar do with the letter he has taken from Oswald?
He gives it to Goneril's husband , Albany .
3. What is the gist of this letter ?
It is that Goneril has planned to kill her husband and marry his
killer .
4. What does Edgar do to his father when the battle begins ?
He hides him for safety under a tree .
5. Who is the leader of the English army ?
He is Edmund .
6. Which army wins the battle , the English or the French army ?
The English army .
7. What happens to Lear and Cordelia ?
They are both captured .
8. Describe Lear's feelings when he is captured ?
He is not afraid of going to prison if he can stay with Cordelia . He
also tries to make her happier .
9. What does Lear say to Cordelia to make her happier ?
He say : " Come , let's away to prison : We two will sing like birds
in the cage ."
10. How does Edmund decide to get rid of Lear and Cordelia ?
He give one of his soldiers a letter with secret orders to kill them .

11. Who understands the danger to Lear and Cordelia ?
It's Albany .
12. How does Albany try to help Lear and Cordelia ?
He asks Edmund to let him look after them .
13. What does Edmund tell Albany after that ?
He tells him that he will have them the next day , not now .
14. What does Goneril do to Regan when they begin to quarrel
about Edmund ?
Goneril gets rid of Regan by poisoning her .
15. What happens to Edmund ?
Albany arrests him .
16. Why does Albany arrest Edmund ?
He arrests him for treason .
17. How does Albany decide that Edmund must face the trial ?
By combat .
18. Who offers to fight Edmund ?
Edgar .
19. Who wins the fight ?
Edgar .
20. What does Edmund do when he falls close to death ?
He admits all his crimes .
21. When does Edgar show who really is ?
After he wins the fight and kills Edmund .
22. How does Gloucester die ?
Suffering from a huge heart attack , he dies happily , in his son's
arms .
23. What happens to Goneril when she realizes that her husband
knows about Edmund and her ?
She becomes desperate , runs away and kills herself with a knife in the heart .
24. What has Edmund ordered to do with Lear and Cordelia ?
He has ordered their death .
25. Does Edgar arrive the castle in time to save Lear and Cordelia?
No, he doesn't . He arrives too late.
26. Who dies first , Lear or Cordelia ?
Cordelia dies first.
27. How does Lear die ?
When Cordelia dies, he carries her in his arms . But he can't
endure this great sorrow , so his heart breaks and dies .
28. Who is left to bury the dead?
Kent, Edgar and Albany.
29. Who becomes the king of England?
Goneril's husband, the Duke of Albany.
1. من يمكن أن يكون قد قال أو فكر بما يلي ؟
وضح كل موقف .
أ ) " لا أستطيع أن أتحمل رؤية والدي المسكين
على هذه الحال ، كيف يمكن لأي شخص أن
يؤديه هكذا ويعامله بهذه القسوة ؟"
من الممكن أن يكون ( إدغار ) أو ( كورديليا ) .
فقد وجد إدغار والده قد أعماه كورنوول .
وفيما بعد وجدت كورديليا والدها الملك لير قد
أصبح مجنوناً بقسوة ابنتيه .
ب) " هل سأجنّ أخيراً أم إني مرتبك فقط ؟ كيف
يمكن أن اسقط من هذا العلو ولا أزال على قيد
الحياة ؟"
يمكن أن يقول هذا غلوسستر . فقد ظن أنه قفز من أعلى الجرف الصخري ومن المفترض أن قد مات ولكنه في الحقيقة سقط من ارتفاع قصير جداً .
ج) " يجب أن أفكر بسرعة ، كيف سأوقفها من
الحصول عليه حيث ان زوجها قد مات الآن ؟"
إنها غونرل ، حيث أرادت إدموند ، وعندما
مات زوج ريغان كانت غونرل قلقة من أن
تتزوج ريغان من إموند .
د) " ماذا ؟ لا اصدق هذا ! هذا يعني أن تلك المرأة
الفظيعة تحاول أن تجعل أخي يقتل زوجها ، هذا
أمر سيء للغاية ."
إنه إدغار ، حيث وجد رسالة تخبر غونرل فيها
إدموند بقتل زوجها ألباني .
هـ) " وأخيراً ! أبي ! ولكن هل حقاً أصبح مجنوناً
تماماً ؟ سأطلب من طبيبي أن يعطيه بعض
الدواء الذي يمكن أن يساعده ."
إنها كورديليا ، عندما وجدت والها الملك لير
طلبت من طبيبها إعطاءه بعض الدواء .
2. أجب الأسئلة التالية .
أ ) لما قرر غلوسستر القفز من على الجرف ؟
لأنه حزيناً جداَ لما فعله بـ ( إدغار ) وبما عاناه
على يدي كورنوول .
ب) لماذا شعر ألباني بأن زوجته غونرل شريرة ؟
لأنها ساعدت كورنوول وريغان في جعل
الملك لير مجنوناً وفي جعل غلوسستر أعمى .


3. أكمل ما يلي :
أ ) سمعت غونرل بأن زوج أختها توفي نتيجة ـــــ
هجوم خادمه خلال عملية إعماء غلوسستر .
ب) قاد إدغار والده إلى وسط حقل وليس إلى
جرف عال ـــ كما أراد والده .
ج) توقع الملك لير أن تكون كورديليا حانقة عليه
لأنه ـــ أساء التصرف معها .
د) كتبت غونرل رسالة إلى إدموند تخبره بأن يقتل
زوجها لأن ـــ زوجها الباني انقلب ضدها
ولأنها أرادت أن تتزوج إدموند .


أسئلة إضافية
1. أين التقي إدغار وغلوسستر بعد طرد الأخير
من قلعة ريغان ؟
تقابلا في أرض جرداء تعصف بها الريح .

2. كيف عامل إدغار والده عندئذ ؟
أخذ يرعاه ويعتني به .
3. كيف قدم إدغار نفسه لأبيه الأعمى ؟
لم يخبره عن حقيقته ، بل تظاهر بأنه " توم
المسكين المجنون " .
4. بم ذكر " توم المسكين المجنون " غلوسستر ،
وماذا تمنى ؟
ذكره بولده إدغار ، وتمنى أن يضمه بذراعيه
مرة أخرى .
5. بماذا شبه غلوسستر كلاً من الآلهة والناس ؟
شبه الناس بالذباب والآلهة بالأولاد الذين
يعذبونهم من أجل المتعة .
6. لماذا لم يستطع إدغار التحدث إلى والده ؟
بسبب حزنه لرؤيته أباه أعمى .
7. إلى أين طلب غلوسستر من غدغار أن يأخذه
ولماذا ؟
طلب منه أن يأخذه إلى دوفر ليلقي بنفسه من
أعلى الجرف الصخري وينهي حياته التعيسة .
8. هل وافق إدغار أخذه إلى هناك ؟
وافق على أخذه ليس إلى دوفر وإنما إلى وسط حقل
9. ماذا فعل غلوسستر في وسط الحقل ؟
قفز وأبقى بنفسه على الأرض .
10. ماذا فعل إدغار عندما سقط والده على
الأرض ؟
رفعه متظاهراً بأنه غريب يريد المساعدة .
11. ماذا جعل إدغار والده يظن بعد سقوطه ؟
جعله يظن بأنه سقط ونجا بمعجزة .
12. كيف بدأت غونرل تعامل زوجها بعد قوعها
في حب إدموند ؟
بدأت تحتقره وتعتبره شخصاً ضعيفاً .
13. ما رد فعل ألباني تجاه سلوك غونرل ؟
بدأ يكره غونرل وريغان وكورنوول وإدموند
على ما قاموا به .
14. " أنت لا تساوين الغبار الذي تذروه الرياح
العاتية على وجهك ." من قائل هذه ، ولمن
قالها ، ولماذا ؟
قالها ألباني لزوجته غونرل لأنه بدأ يكرهها .
15. متى توفي كورنوول ؟
بعد هجوم الخادم أثناء إعماء غلوسستر .
16. لماذا قلقت غونرل بأخبار وفاة كورنوول ؟
لأن أختها ريغان أصبحت أرملة وربما
ستتزوج إدموند ، الرجل الذي أرادته هي لنفسها .
17. ماذا اعتبر ألباني إدموند ، وماذا قرر أن يفعل
اعتبر إدموند خائناً فظيعاً ، وقرر معاقبته .
18. أين ترك ملك فرنسا كورديليا ؟
تركها مع جيشه قرب دوفر .
19. ماذا أخبر (كنت) كورديليا في رسالته ؟
أخبرها عن إصابة والدها بالجنون .
20. مم كان (لير) خجلاً ؟
كان خجلاً من الطريقة التي عامل بها كورديليا .
21. حسب رأي (لير) ، من الذي يعاقب ومن الذي
لا يعاقب ؟
الفقراء والمستضعفون ً يعاقبون ، بينما لا يعاقب الأغنياء والأقوياء مع أنهم يرتكبون نفس الجرائم . 22. ما هي أول علامات ذهاب جنون (لير ) ؟
عندما تعرف على غلوسستر .
23. بم أمر ( أوزولد) خادم غونرل أن يقوم به ؟
أمر بالعثور على غلوسستر وقتله .
24. من الذي منع (أوزولد) من قتل غلوسستر
وكيف كان ذلك ؟
إنه إدغار الذي كان لا يزال متخفياً ، حيث قتل
أوزولد .
25. ماذا وجد إدغار مع أوزولد بعد قتله ؟
رسالة من غونرل إلى إدموند تخبره بأن يقتل
زوجها ألباني حتى يتمكن من الزواج بها .
26. ما شعور كورديليا عندا رأت والدها المجنون؟
شعرت بالحزن الشديد .
27. ماذا فعلت كورديليا لأبيها ؟
طلبت من طبيبها أن يعطيه دواءً يعيد له عافيته .
28. ما رد فعل كل من لير وكورديليا عندما تعافى
ارتبك لير ولم يعرف أين هو ، وعرف ابنته
وتوقع أن تكون غاضبة . بينما هي جعلته يفهم أنها
تحبه وقد سامحته . وكانا سعيدين يالتقائهما ثانية .





الفصل الخامس
أسئلة الكتاب / 82
2. أجب الأسئلة التالية .
أ ) لماذا أرادت غونرل من إدموند قتل زوجها ؟
لأنها لا تستطيع الزواج منه وزجها على قيد الحياة
ب) لماذا اعتقل دوق ألباني إدموند ؟
لأنه أراد أن يقدمه للعدالة بسبب خيانته .


أسئلة إضافية
1. هل أقر إدموند أم أنكر عندما سألته ريغان فيما
إذا كان يحب غونرل ؟
لقد أنكر .
2. ماذا فعل إدغار بالرسالة التي أخذها من أوزولد
أعطاها لزوج غونرل ( ألباني) .
3. ما فحوى هذه الرسالة ؟
تنص على أن غونرل قد خططت لقتل زوجها
والزواج من قاتله .
4. ماذا فعل إدغار لأبيه عندما بدأت المعركة ؟
خبأه تحت شجرة من أجل سلامته .
5. من كان قائد الجيش الانجليزي ؟
إدموند .
6. أي الجيشين ربح المعركة ؟
الجيش الانجليزي .
7. ماذا حدث لـ(لير) وكورديليا ؟
وقعا في الأسر .


8. صف شعور لير عندما وقع في الأسر .
لم يكن خائفاً من الذهاب إلى السجن إذا كان يمكنه البقاء مع كورديليا ، وحاول أيضاً أن يجعلها سعيدة
9. ماذا قال لير لكورديليا ليجعلها سعيدة ؟
" هيا نذهب إلى السجن : سنغني مثل طائرين
في القفص " .
10. كيف قرر إدموند أن يتخلص من لير وكورديليا
أعطى أحد جنوده رسالة تتضمن أوامر سرية
بقتلهما .
11. من أدرك الخطر المحدق بـ(لير) وكورديليا ؟
إنه ( ألباني )
12. كيف حاول ألباني مساعدة لير وكورديليا ؟
طلب من إدموند السماح له برعايتهما .
13. ماذا أخبر إدموند ألباني عندئذ ؟
أخبره بأنه سيعطيه إياهما في اليوم التالي وليس
الآن .
14. ماذا فعلت غونرل بـ ريغان عندما بدءا
بالمشاجرة حول إدموند ؟
تخلصت منها بتسميمها .
15. ماذا حدث لإدموند ؟
اعتقله ألباني .
16. لماذا اعتقل ألباني إدموند ؟
بسبب الخيانة .
17. كيف قرر ألباني بأن يواجه إدموند المحكمة ؟
عن طريق النزال .
18. من يتقدم لنزال إدموند ؟
إدغار .
19. من ربح القتال ؟
إدغار
20. ماذا فعل إدموند عندما سقط كالميت ؟
اعترف بكل جرائمه .
21. متى كشف إدغار عن شخصيته الحقيقية ؟
بعد فوزه في النزال وقتله إدموند .
22. كيف مات غلوسستر ؟
لقد عانى من نوبة قلبية حادة ، حيث مات سعيداً
بين ذراعي ابنه إدغار .
23. ماذا حصل لـ غونرل عندما أدركت أن زوجها
يعرف بأمرها وأمر إدموند ؟
أصبحت يائسة وهربت وقتلت نفسها بطعنة
سكين في قلبها .
24. ماذا أمر إدموند بأن يفعل بـ(لير ) وكورديليا ؟
أمر بقتلهما .
25. هل وصل إدغار القلعة في الوقت المحدد
لإنقاذ لير وكورديليا ؟
كلا ، لقد وصل متأخراً .
26. من مات أولاً ، لير أم كورديليا ؟
ماتت كورديليا أولاً .
27. كيف مات لير ؟
عندما ماتت كورديليا ، حملها بين ذراعيه . إلا
أنه لم يستطع تحمل الحزن الكبير ، فانفطر
فؤاده ومات .
28. من بقي لدفن الموتى ؟
(كنت) و (إدغار) و (ألباني) .
29. من أصبح ملك انجلترا بعد ذلك ؟
زوج غونرل ، دوق ألباني .











Quiz
1. Lear is king of what country?
(A) France
(B) Britain
(C) East Anglia
(D) Scotland

2. Which one of Lear’s daughters is sent into exile المنفى ?
(A) Goneril
(B) Regan
(C) Cordelia
(D) Juliet

3. Which one of Lear’s counselors مستشارين blames يلوم the king for exiling his daughter?
(A) Albany
(B) Kent
(C) Cornwall
(D) Edmund

4. Who is Gloucester’s bastard غير شرعي son?
(A) Kent
(B) Edgar
(C) Albany
(D) Edmund

5. When Lear visits Goneril, what does she demand يطالب of him?
(A) That he acknowledge her as the sole queen of the realm
(B) That he send away some of his knights
(C) That he execute Cordelia
(D) That he send away the Fool

6. When they hear that Lear is coming to visit them, where do Regan and Cornwall go?
(A) To Gloucester’s castle
(B) To France
(C) To Goneril’s home
(D) To London

7. Why is Kent thrown into the stocks آلة التعذيب ?
(A) For trying to kill Goneril
(B) For beating Oswald with the flat of his sword
(C) For threatening Lear’s life
(D) For praising Cordelia in public

8. When he flees فر from his father, how does Edgar disguise تنكر himself?
(A) As a common beggar
(B) As a soldier
(C) As Edmund
(D) As Shakespeare

9. When Lear tells Regan that Goneril has wronged خطأ him, what does Regan advise him to do?
(A) Kill himself
(B) Banish Goneril
(C) Make Regan the sole queen
(D) Go to Goneril and ask her forgiveness

10. After he curses يلعن both Goneril and Regan, what does Lear do?
(A) He storms out of Gloucester’s castle, accompanied by the Fool
(B) He disinherits both daughters
(C) He sets out in search of Cordelia
(D) He dies

11. Whom does Lear meet living in a little hovel كوخ on the heath?
(A) Albany
(B) Edgar, in disguise
(C) Cordelia
(D) Edmund

12. Why is Gloucester accused اتهم of treason الخيانة ?
(A) Because he attempts to assassinate Goneril and Regan
(B) Because he throws Lear in prison
(C) Because he exiles Edgar
(D) Because Edmund reveals letters showing that he knows of a French invasion

13. Where does Gloucester send Lear and his attendants مرافقين ?
(A) To Dover
(B) To London
(C) To Gloucester’s castle
(D) To Goneril’s castle






14. How is Gloucester punished for his “treason”?
(A) He is burned
(B) He is blinded
(C) He is branded with a scarlet letter
(D) He is exiled

15. Who encounters يصادف Gloucester on the heathالأرض البور and offers to lead him to Dover?
(A) The Fool
(B) Edmund
(C) Edgar
(D) Lear

16. Who is leading يقود the army that lands at Dover?
(A) Albany
(B) Kent
(C) Cordelia
(D) Lear

17. Why does Gloucester want to reach the cliffsمنحدرات of Dover?
(A) He wants to see the invasion fleet
(B) He thinks Edgar is waiting for him there
(C) He wants to throw himself over the cliffs
(D) He wants to see the famed white cliffs before he dies
18. To whom are both Goneril and Regan attracted منجذبتان ?
(A) Edmund
(B) Edgar
(C) Albany
(D) Cornwall
19. Before the battle between the French and English armies, to whose camp معسكر is Lear brought?
(A) Cordelia’s
(B) Edmund’s
(C) Gloucester’s
(D) Albany’s

20. What happens to Lear and Cordelia during the battle معركة ?
(A) They are separated from one another
(B) Edmund takes them captive
(C) They are both killed
(D) Cordelia is killed and Lear is taken captive

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